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3 Forward 

4 Acknowledgments 

6 Essays 

8 The Origin of the Harvard Map Collection 
12 Ebeling's Library, Israel Thorndike, and the 
Slave Trade 

16 Annotating the Landscape 
23 The Harvard Map Collection and the Future 
of Cartography 

32 Catalogue 

33 Foundations 

69 Scholars and Staff 
76 Fellow Travelers 
99 Curators and Staff 
101 Institutional Changes 
111 Maps and Wars 
120 Data and GIS 

122 Index 

"Widener Map Room," c. 1950. Harvard University Archives UAV 605 Box 84 (No. AS 404). 



As the twelfth (ish, maybe) Head of the Harvard Map Collection, and having worked in the Map 
Collection for one-tenth of its existence; if is my great pleasure on behalf of the Harvard Library to 
immortalize our bicentennial celebration in this volume. 

The Map Collection has been through its ups and downs, as one would expect in two centuries at 
any institution. At times it has thrived. At times it merely endured. That it continues to exist as a 
home to all things geographic and geospatial is due to the efforts of our generous donors, our 
devoted researchers, faculty and students, our loyal friends, and the amazing staff, past and present, 
all of whom value not only the history and artistry of the maps, but also the stories they tell. Stories 
of who owned the maps, of why they were used, the stories the mapmaker tells through his creation. 
We, all together, value thinking about where we are, and about where, historically, people thought 
they were physically, politically, demographically. 

By using and supporting and talking about maps and spatial thinking in the nineteenth century, we 
are laying the foundations for cartography, geography, and digital scholarship in the twenty-first. 

Bonnie Burns 

Head, Geospatial Resources 


The exhibition itself was truly a team effort, with every single person who works in the Map 
Collection applying their expertise. We also extend our thanks to University Archives, Houghton 
Library, Schlesinger Library, Harvard and Slavery Project, Library Technical Services, the Weissman 
Preservation Center, Library Imaging Services, and Library Operations. 

101. Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, "A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of Virginia," 1755. 





34. Robert Sayer and John Bennett, "A new map of the whole continent of America," 1777. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


The Origin of the 
Harvard Map Collection 

Lena Denis, Cartographic Assistant, 
Harvard Map Collection 

The Harvard Map Collection began two hundred 
years ago when Harvard accepted the gift of the 
library of the geographer, librarian, and historian 
Christoph Ebeling. Ebeling owned perhaps the 
best private library of books on North America 
and his map collection totaled some 10,000 sheets 
(about 5,000 maps). With the arrival of this 
collection. Harvard's library went from having 
no real map collection to having the best in the 
nation. In June 1818, Harvard suddenly had a 
virtually unrivalled map collection that had been 
cobbled together 3,600 miles away for half a 
century, by multiple individuals with varying 
motivations, with only a slight connection to 
Harvard, and with little intention of the collection 
even coming to the US. 

The core of what became the Harvard Map 
Collection's original gift began in documents that 
Georg Friedrich Brandes gathered as a 
governmental official. After studying law at 
Gottingen and Leiden and befriending 
influential noble families, Brandes was appointed 
to the Privy Council of Hanover in 1746, where 
he soon worked on the administration of the 
Liineburg saltworks. Ten years later, at the start 
of the Seven Years' War, Brandes often left 
Hanover to oversee the surveying of the 
Westphalian provinces. 1 Several of the maps in 
Harvard's collection, therefore, show Liineburg 
and the surrounding area including the saltworks 
while others detail the Westphalian region as part 
of this surveying project. 

With these official documents as a foundation, 
Brandes further developed his library by 
following the intellectual movements and 
discoveries of his day. Brandes' wider, bookish 
interests served him well in his second career. In 
1769, he was given administrative control of the 
University of Gottingen by its founder and 
reigning curator, Hanover's Prime Minister 
Gerlach Adolph von Miinchhausen. Brandes, 
following Miinchhausen's precedent, used his 
influence and power as a state actor to support 
the university and let its students and instructors 
conduct research with little censorship. 2 

Back at Gottingen, Brandes befriended and 
learned from the professor and librarian 
Christian Gottlob Heyne. Under Heyne's 
influence, Brandes' library became more than a 
bureaucrat's messy desk. From the beginning of 
their acquaintance, Heyne enormously 
influenced Brandes' collecting practices, 
especially by connecting him to merchants across 
Europe to help him build an immense library 
not only for himself but also for the university. 3 
Through his university connections, Brandes 
befriended and worked with a variety of 
Enlightenment intellectuals. In a milieu that 
mixed professional and personal connections, the 
fluidity of Brandes' Enlightenment circles was a 
necessary feature for the exchange of 
educational resources. As a result of this new 
network of colleagues, Brandes' books were no 
longer just an official's sources; they became an 
Enlightenment gentleman's library. The maps he 
left behind, now at Harvard, thus combine his 
earlier work—strategic representations of 
eighteenth-century German lands for war and 
taxes—with a world-class collection of maps and 
atlases that were (and still are) the envy of 
academics and antiquarians everywhere. 

1 Gabriele Crusius, Aufklarung und Bibliophilie: Der Hannoveraner Sammler Georg Friedrich Brandes und seine Bibliothek 
(Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag Winter, 2008), 36-37. 

2 Ernst Bohme, "History of Ilie tfniWtsiiy - Alt Overview - Georg-Augist-Universitat Gottingen," Georg-August- 
Universitdt Gottingen. 
(accessed 18 July 2018). 

3 CruSiMSj Aufklarung und Bibliophilie, 12-13. 

The collection did not cease growing when 
Brandes died but found added life in a new 
contributor. Like Brandes, Christoph Ebeling 
began collecting in earnest at Gottingen. Ebeling 
graduated in 1767 having studied geography, 
history, languages, and literature. In particular, 
Ebeling latched onto the methods and 
scholarship of Gottfried Achenwall. AchenwalTs 
scholarship instilled Ebeling with the then¬ 
revolutionary notion that he must study history, 
geography, and government using the "objective 
statistical evaluation of primary data." 4 
Internalizing this methodology, Ebeling, 
throughout his life wrote and revised historical 
and geographical texts according to the best 
primary sources he could obtain. To do this 
work, of course, Ebeling needed to collect even 
beyond that required of a regular university 
student of his time. Universities expected 
students of means to collect their own personal 
study libraries because even public libraries were 
only open at the discretion of the librarian. 5 

Even before news of the American Revolution 
made its way to Europe, Ebeling had been 
teaching the geography of North America with 
fascination. In 1769, the same year that Brandes 
became director of Gottingen's university, 

Ebeling had accepted a post at the Hamburg 
Handlungsakademie, the city's recently founded 
business school, and became a co-director within 
the year. The prosperity brought by free trade 
was a huge part of Ebeling's teaching as well 
as his day-to-day life since his students were 
required to work at the stock exchange in the 
evenings. 6 Thus, when the rumblings of American 
independence started gaining notice in 1770, 
Ebeling thought it was extremely important to 
report what was happening to his German peers. 

Over the next thirty years, Ebeling founded and 
edited journals for American news in German, 
mainly the Amerikanische Bibliothek and the 
Amerikanisches Magazin. In addition to these 
periodicals, Ebeling published his Erdbeschreibung 
und Geschichte von Amerika (cat. 4)—a massive 
history and geography of the United States. 
Publishing the first volume in 1793 and the last 
just before his death in 1817, Ebeling had planned 
this set to cover the entire United States but only 
finished 7 volumes. 7 

For both these periodicals and his monographs, 
Ebeling needed sources. Ebeling translated acts 
of the newly formed US legislature, analyzed 
fiscal policy, and performed other research with 
exacting detail. As a scholar, teacher, and 
librarian in Hamburg, Ebeling was well 
situated to cultivate foreign informants. Anyone 
who wanted to get anything in or out of Europe 
would often need to go through Hamburg 
anyway. 8 With some persuasive letter writing, 
Ebeling managed to get incredible access to 
American sources. A veritable who's who of 
American intellectuals would become his 
scholarly pen pals—including Isaiah Thomas, 
William Bentley (cat. 47), Jeremy Belknap, 
Jedidiah Morse (cat. 43M4), and Ezra Stiles (cat. 
46). Ebeling combined this letter-writing 
campaign with the blend of public and private 
collecting so common to Gottingen. In a 1796 
letter to Bentley, for instance, Ebeling describes 
buying copies for Gottingen and himself 
simultaneously. 9 Because of both the quality of 
his publications and his near-constant contact, 
Ebeling had a great reputation as a scholar and a 
colleague among New England intellectuals. 

4 Gordon M. Stewart, "Christoph Daniel Ebeling: America's Friend in Eighteenth Century Germany." Monatshefte 68, no. 2 
(1976): 152. 

5 Paul G. Hoftijzer, "The Library of Johannes De Laet (1581-1649)." Lias 25, no. 2 (1998): 201-216. 

6 Gordon McNett Stewart, The Literary Contributions of Christoph Daniel Ebeling (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1978), 24, 27; Stewart, 
"Christoph Daniel Ebeling" 155-156. 

7 Eugene Edgar Doll, American Histony as Interpreted by German Historians from 1770 to 1S15 (Philadelphia: The American 
Philosophical Society, 1949), 474. 

8 Ulrich Pfister, "Great Divergence, Consumer Revolution and the Reorganization of Textile Markets: Evidence from 
Hamburg's Import Trade, Eighteenth ( cntury " Economic History Working Papers 266 (2017): 3-10. 
Economic-History/Assets/Documents/WorkingPapers/Economic-History/2017/WP266.pdf. (accessed 18 July 2018) 

9 William Coolidge Lane, Letters of Christoph Daniel Ebeling (Worcester, MA: The American Antiquarian Society, 1926), 

35. John Mitchell, "A map of the British and French dominions in North America," 1755. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


Ebeling's Library, 
Israel Thorndike, and 
the Slave Trade 

David Weimer, Librarian for Cartographic Collections 
and Learning, Harvard Map Collection 

Christoph Daniel Ebeling never intended his 
library to come to the United States. Ebeling's 
maps and his books on the Americas—his 
Bibliotheca Americana (cat. 42) —only came to the 
United States because of the sustained efforts 
of several Harvard professors, alumni, and one 
donor. This chain of events began slowly with 
Ebeling's long cultivation of correspondents in 
the US, but the main catalyst was the well-timed 
visit to Ebeling's home in Hamburg by three 
young men affiliated with Harvard. 

Through his correspondence with Americans and 
his published books and magazines, Ebeling had 
developed a good and friendly reputation in the 
United States, particularly among New England 
intellectuals. US newspapers mentioned 
Ebeling's new publications favorably. 1 Isaiah 
Thomas, convinced by his own brief written 
relationship with Ebeling and William Bentley's 
recommendation, supported Ebeling's election as 
a member of the American Antiquarian Society 
early after it was founded in 1812. 

This reputation led the three young Harvard 
scholars at Gottingen—Joseph Cogswell, Edward 
Everett, and Augustus Thorndike—to visit 
Hamburg at the end of May 1817. Cogswell made 
the trip as a tutor for Thorndike, who was 
making his way through Europe on a Grand 
Tour. They met up with Everett in Gottingen 

where Everett, the most accomplished of the trio, 
had recently finished an additional graduate 
degree. During his studies at Gottingen, Everett 
regularly communicated with the president of 
Harvard, John Kirkland, about his professors, his 
plans for changes at Harvard, and his daily life. 

At Gottingen, Everett was well aware of Ebeling, 
who, through Bentley, had provided letters of 
introduction to a few professors. Moreover, 
Everett had even sent Ebeling an inscribed copy 
of his Defence of Christianity (1814) two years 
earlier in October 1815. 2 

As they were all leaving Gottingen to continue on 
to other parts of Europe, they travelled together 
to Hamburg in late May 1817. In Hamburg, they 
met with business men, including Joseph 
Pitcairn, who had been the US consul to 
Hamburg until 1802, and Richard Parish, as well 
as scholggS, Cogswell wrote to John Farrar of his 
visits to two eminent botanists in the city as 
Cogswell prepared for a potential professorship 
in botany and mineralogy. 3 And, of course, they 
visited Christoph Ebeling. After visiting with 
Tbeling. his 27 May 1817 letter to Kirkland was 
particularly forceful. Everett called Ebeling's 
collection "a more complete list of American 
materials than are contained in any other 
collection in America or Europe." With news 
from Cogswell that the university in Berlin 
wanted Ebeling's library, Everett demanded 
quick action: "Ask the legislature for a grant, beg, 
borrow, steal the money, if need be; but the books 
we must have." Everett even insisted that he 
would write his brother, then a diplomat living 
in Europe, to "see if Congress cannot be induced 
to purchase it" 4 —an alternate possibility I don't 
have time to go into here. For Everett, at least, the 
question was not whether Ebeling's collection 
belonged in the US but who would bring it there. 

1 See, for instance, "Ebeling's American Geography," The National Advocate (25 September 1816), 2. 

1 This copy is now at the Massachusetts Historical Society with many of Edward Everett's papers. 

3 Cogswell to John Farrar, 11 June 1817. Harvard College Papers, 1st series, 1636-1825, 1831. UAI 5.100, 8.50. Harvard 
University Archives. 

4 Edward I vr reft;,ho jphnl Iv an e :n Kirkland, 27 May 1817. Edward Ever®|ftterbook and journal [photocopies], 1815- 
1842, Ms. N-2226, 214. Massachusetts Historical Society. 


Everett'and letter activated these two 
potential paths to acquisition simultaneously— 
Qjte with the federal government and one with 
Harvard. Everett's brother has passed along the 
news of the library to John Quincy Adams, who 
was willing to purchase it himself believing that 
the government would then purchase it from him 
for the Library of Congress. 5 At the same time, 
Everett and Kirkland approached potential 
donors with the idea of acquiring Ebeling's 
library—including, for instance, Thomas 
Perkins—before they found the most obvious 
candidate. 6 Israel Thorndike, the father of the 
same Augustus Thorndike who had visited 
Ebeling with Everett, was one of the richest men 
in the US. Between his son's enthusiasm and 
Kirkland passing along Everett's effusive letter, 
Thorndike had agreed to acquire the library at 
any cost. 7 With two competing bids for Ebeling's 

Thorndike, Everett decided he was bound to 
Thorndike, who set no limit compared to Adams' 
$6,000 ceiling. This decision came as a relief to 
Adams, who had found that President James 
Monroe was much less enthusiastic about the 
purchase than he. 8 With the help of Richard 
Parish and Joseph Pitcairn, therefore, Cogswell 
and Everett managed the negotiations and 
Thorndike eventually spent a total of $6,285—or 
22,000 Marc Banco (cat. 7). 9 

The full cost of this collection, however, exceeded 
the currency that Israel Thorndike spent because 
of Thorndike's involvement in the slave trade. 
Although Thorndike did not come from 
money, he had, by the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, established himself as one 
of the richest US citizens through an extensive 
trading business. Like some other successful New 
England merchants, Thorndike profited as a 
middle-man between the ports of warring 
European nations. In doing so, Thorndike totally 
immersed his trade in the Caribbean slave 
system. 10 He sold fish to islands throughout the 
Caribbean and brought box upon box of 
sugar from Havana to Hamburg, Amsterdam, 
and Bremen. On the way, he also profited from 
moving enslaved Africans between Caribbean 
islands (cat. 36-39). In 1791, for instance, 
Thorndike and his partner Moses Brown—not 
the famous Rhode Island merchant, but another 
Beverly native—instructed Thorndike's cousin on 
the Schooner Two Friends to "purchase from five 
to fourteen good negroes " in Cap Frangais (now 
Cap Haitian) and sell them in Havana where, 
depending on their profitability, he should "vest 
in sugar, cotton, or hides." 11 On this ship, by 
27 April 1792, Nicholas Thorndike had sold 10 
slaves for 236 dollars each and purchased 40 
boxes of sugar, 2,217 barrels of Molasses, 20 jars 
of honey, 1 ton of logwood, and 50 dryed hides, 12 

5 Carl Ostrowski, Books, Maps, and Politics: A Cultural History of the Library of Congress, 17S3-1S61 (Amherst: University of 
Massachusetts Press, 2004), 87. 

6 John Kirkland to Edward Everett, 12 September 18117, Pap* of Edward Everett, 1807-1864, UAI 15.884, Box 2. Harvard 
University Archives: Edward Everett to Rev. S. C. TlatAer at Moulins, Paris, 9 November 1817. Edward Everett letterbook 
and journal [photocopies], 1815-1842, Ms. N-2226, 235. Massachusetts Historical Society. 

7 Edward Everett to John Thornton Kirkland, 25 January 1818. Edward Everett letterbook and journal [photocopies], 
1815-1842, Ms. N-2226, 251-2. Massachusetts Historical Society. 

8 Ostrowski, Books, Maps, and Politics, 87; Edward Everett to A. H. Everett, Rome, 16 November 1818. Edward Everett letter 
book, 1818-1819. Houghton f MS Am 1742, 14. Houghton Library: John Quincy Adams, Worthington Chauncey Ford, and 
Worthington Chauncey Ford. Writings of John Quincy Adams. Volume 6. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1913), 227, 
263-264, 304-305. 

9 Pitcairn, Blffldi.e'S& co to Israel Thorndike, 11 August 1818. Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18. 

10 For the two thorough accounts of Thorndike's life, see John Douglas Forbes, Israel Thorndike. Federalist Financier (New 
York: Published for the Beverly Histarfeal Society by Exposition Press, 1953); Timothy H. Kistner, Federalist Tycoon: The 
Life and Times of Israel Thorndike (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2015). 

11 Orders to Capt. Nicholas Thorndike signed by Israel Thorndike and Moses Brown, 4 October 1791. Doc 18460. Beverly 
Historical Society. 

18 Account of BrownSM Thorndike with N. Thorndike, 27 April 1792. Doc 18488. Beverly Historical Society. The voyages 
appear with these two ports in Slam Trade to Havana, Cuba, 1790-1820, compiled by Herbert S. Klein, https://www.disc. (accessed 19 July 2018). Distributed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison 
with funding from the National Institutes of Health. Madison, WI, 2018. 


Thorndike continued his trade in the Caribbean 
into the nineteenth century while broadening 
out into the Pacific—sending ships to Calcutta, 
Canton, and Batavia for spices and textiles (cat. 

When Thorndike authorized Cogswell and 
Everett to purchase Ebeling's books and maps in 
his name, the books and maps became like 
anything else in Thorndike's ledgers. 
"Twenty-three boxes containing maps, charts, 
manuscripts, pamphlets, newspapers, and 
books" (cat. 12) mean the same kind of thing in 
this accounting as ten slaves on the Two Friends, 
130 boxes of Cuban sugar on the Betsy, 13 or 16 
hogshead of fish on the Three Brothers. 11 
Therefore, this history of the Harvard Map 
Collection exists within a much broader story of 
the global slave economy and how it fueled the 
rise of independent wealth in the Lnitod States. 
In turn, we cannot calculate the cost of the 
original gift solely in terms of exchanged 
currencies. An honest accounting requires that 
we also consider the lives of those people that 
Thorndike and others traded as if they were no 
different than other commodities. Only by 
reckoning with this past can the Map Collection 
build into its third century. 

13 Shipping receipt, 19 September 1 799. Israel Thorndike Business records, 1778-1899, Box 2 Folder 3. Baker Business 
Library, Harvard Library. 

14 Invoice, 18 November 1800. Israel Thorndike Business records, 1778-1899, Box 3 Folder 2. Baker BusinhgkXibrary, 
Harvard Library. 


32. Andres Bure, "Regnorum Sueciae, Daniae et Norvegiae," c. 1710. Hohenzollern Collection. 


These letters might refer to the currencies (.iroten. 
Florin (Gulden), and Schilling, respectively. 

Given the frequency with which this three- 
number annotation appears and its exclusive 
attachment to toponyms, we can infer that the 
monetary denominations indicate local property 
values or tax burdens. This region sits right at 
Bavaria's border with Wiirttemberg, sO precise 
accounting of land values was particularly urgent 
in a period as attentive to claims of sovereignty as 
the post-Napoleonic era. Unfortunately, it is not 
possible at this point to determine when these 
values were determined more precisely than the 
period between the 1820s and 1860s. 

Von Maurer seems to have used this map not just 
for governmental purposes but also for his 
scholarly research. Public service was not von 
Maurer's sole vocation, for he was awarded the 
top prize in 1824 by the Akademie der 
Wissenschaft zu Munchen for his pioneering work 
on medieval trials ("Die Geschichte deS 
altgerman. und namentlich altbayer. 
offentlichmiindlichen Verfahren"). He published 
his magnum opus. Introduction to the History of 
Border, Q00I, Village, and City Formation and Public 
Authority (Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-, 

Hof-, Dorf- und Stadti’erfassung und der offentlichen 
ffemfff, in 1854. Several volumes followed 
through the 1860s on more specific themes in the 
German development of land rights and legal 

Von Maurer attends to such developments in this 
region in the overwhelming majority of 
inscriptions in the body of the map that begin 
with a date between 1100 and 1400 and document 
an event in the named locale. From the small 
proportion of annotations that can be deciphered 
and translated, the overarching theme of these 
historical inscriptions seems to be land rights and 
property transactions. 

The words Gut (possession, estate) and predium 
[praedium] (farm, estate) appear quite regularly. 
For example, an isolated annotation at the very 
bottom of the map references the knight 
Engelhard of Tapfheim's bequest of his estate 
at Biihel in 1253. 7 Another series of annotations 
places witnesses in certain places, most likely 
to indicate the first documentation of a certain 
settlement or a noble family's hegemony over the 
land. These inscriptions end with the 
abbreviation "t." for testis (witness) and can be 
found throughout the map. For instance, "1272 
Vlricus de / CorKingen t." is placed east of 
Baldern, and "1248 Gaius de Gnozzesheim / 
miles t." is written at the very lop of the map by 
Schloss Spielberg. 

With this mix of annotations, the map opens a 
window onto multiple layers of time from the 
Middle Ages through the middle of the 
nineteenth century. Additionally, the materiality 
of the map suggests the existence of two separate 
manuscript layers. Annotations appear in black, 
brown, and red inks to varying degrees, and 
some annotations are added in pencil as well. 

The black ink registers place names from villages 
to rivers to the single point of (relatively) high 
altitude, the butte Ipf. There are 554 total 
inscriptions in this first manuscript layer 
accompanied by 568 iterations of the following 
eleven symbols. 

7 Martin Schaidler, Guvnik des ehemaligen Reiclisstiftes Kaisersheim (Kaisheim i: nebst einer Beschreibung der Kirche (Kaisheim: 
Beck, 186 7), 20. 


Appendix 1: Corrections 



nLj j 





3 y. * I *>y/ 






n i o 

A A ✓Z-- 


Anhauser Hofe 





General German Intelligence Service, Aerial Reconnaissance Pigeon, c. 1914-1918. 
Courtesy of Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-R01996. 


The Harvard Map 
Collection and tire 
Future of Cartography 

Dani Brown, Geospatial Data Technical Assistant, 
Harvard Map Collection 

Here at the Harvard Map Collection we are 
concerned with more than just the preservation 
and curation of paper maps. We are also home to 
an increasingly diverse and ever growing 
collection of digital geospatial data, from 
georeferenced antiquarian map scans to census 
data vector files from India to interactive fantasy 
web maps best viewed on our giant touch screen. 

The creation, aggregation, and curation of this 
increasingly complex assortment of digital 
geospatial data is one of the Map Collection's 
priorities as it aims to support evolving patron 
interest and research. 

Digitizing Historic Maps 

One of the most basic and most useful ways to 
leverage digital cartography and GIS 
(geographic information systems) is to simply 
create a digital copy of a paper map. 

Here at the Harvard Map Collection, we have a 
vast number of historic paper maps that contain 
invaluable cartographic and historic information. 
GIS and digital cartography allow us to extract 
this information and transform it into digital data 
that can then be utilized by patrons of the 
Collection for a truly unlimited assortment of 
research projects, geospatial analyses, and 
cartographic endeavors. 

Take a look at the historic map of Asia Minor 
below for an example of how historic maps are 
transformed into new digital datasets here at the 

Let's take a look at some of the ways in which the 

Map Collection actually creates new geospatial Butler, Samuel. Atlas of Ancient and Classical 

data using GIS and digital cartography. Geography. Richard Clay & Sons, Limited, 1907. 


The map above is a scanned copy of a paper map. 
As you can see, this map contains useful 
information about the political boundaries of 
Classical-era Anatolia. 

Using a GIS desktop application called ArcMap, 
these historic political boundaries were traced 
and transformed into vector data, or data that 
come in the form of points/lines/polygons with 
associated information stored in a table contained 
within the vector file. 

Vector Data 


• • 



\ X 


tx PP 

These vector data can then be used in myriad 
ways. For instance, the original paper map was 
reproduced with some slight variation to make 
the map labels more legible (see below). 

Because vector data contain geographic 
coordinates, they can also be used by patrons for 
more advanced geospatial analyses, such as 
measuring the exact distances between the 
various Anatolian polities or calculating the 
differences in area between Lycia and Cilicia. 

All of these different analyses can be performed 
using GIS applications such as ArcMap, QGIS, 
or Carto, which are available through the Map 

New vector datasets are uploaded to the Harvard 
Geospatial Library (HGL) for download and use 
by patrons. 

Where do we go from here? How else does the 
Map Collection leverage GIS and digital 
cartography to enhance learning, research, and 
access to cartographic data? 


Enhancing Digital Datasets 

One of the most exciting components of digital 
data is the ease with which it can be integrated 
into and manipulated by web-based applications. 
For instance, web-based applications provide 
easy and user-friendly medium through which 
data can be made interactive, thus enhancing the 
user experience and increasing the amount of 
information that can be conveyed with one map. 

Let's take a look at the maps below for an 
example of how the Map Collection has 
leveraged web-based cartography. 

This is a static map of the European Theater and 
the furthest extent of the Third Reich during 
WWII, specifically highlighting the varying 
sovereignty and allegiances of each region in 
Europe. As a choropleth map this image uses 
color-coded categories to effectively convey this 
information to its audience. 

What if we were to turn this map into an 
interactive web-based map, thus allowing the 
user to more dynamically interact with the map 
and its information? 

In order to create the web-map below, a vector 
file of modern country boundaries was modified 
until it matched the static European Theater map 
above. (A few changes were made to the 
categories used in the original map for 
clarification purposes). 

Remember the associated tabular data stored 
within the vector file mentioned earlier? Well that 
accessory information can be incredibly useful 
when data are displayed in a web map. In this 
case, the sovereignty/allegiance information and 
regional names from the original static map were 
recorded within the vector file so that they could 
be displayed interactively for the user. 


An attribute table: the tabular data stored within a vector file. 


@ - ifi- % ® El 

merge3_ne_1 Om_adm i n_0_cou ntries 









German allies, co-belligerents, and puppet states 



Poiy si 

Poly si 




Poiy si 

Po ly si 

Roiy si 

Po ly si 

Poly si 

Poly 31 

Poly 91 


German allies, co-belligerents, and pu ppet states 


Poly 31 



Neutral countries 


Poly 91 


Malta (Britain) 

Allied-held areas 

The result is the map below. Zoom in, zoom out, and explore the European Theater in 1942 and notice 
how this experience differs from simply observing a static map containing the same information. 
(Interactive map only available online.) 

Where To Go From Here? 

Looking forward into the future of digital 
cartography and GIS, the possibilities are truly 
endless. So where do we go from here? What 
kinds of information would you like to explore 
using web maps or GIS applications or digital 

And what about Godzilla...have you ever 
wondered what the geographic distribution of 
his and his nemeses' wrath and terror looks like? 

The map below was made by taking the list of 
movies and locations compiled in a VH1 article, 
entering the data into a spreadsheet, and 
uploading it into a GIS application (this time a 
desktop application). The resulting vector file 
was a set points representing every location 
destroyed by Godzilla (or one of his nemeses). 
Because the locations were primarily located in 
the Northern Hemisphere, we made the 
cartographic decision to reproject the vector data 
so that the Earth could be viewed as though 
looking down on it from the North Pole, allowing 
the viewer to see all of the destruction points at 

What about mapping something fun that speaks 
directly to your own interests? GIS and digital 
cartography do not have to be limited to 
historic datasets and purely academic pursuits. 
Have you ever wondered which world cities 
are most likely to be destroyed in blockbuster 
movies? Or perhaps you would just like a stylish 
cartographic representation of Godzilla's global 
rampages over the decades... 

For Godzilla, we decided to make our final 
cartographic representation a static map, not an 
interactive web map. It is important to know that 
there are advantages and disadvantages to every 
type of data and map. In this case, we decided 
to highlight the potential for interesting and 
eye-catching cartography, not interactivity. This 
map can also be printed and viewed without the 
internet, unlike web-maps. 

Tto put the finishing touches on this Godzilla 
map, the reprojected vector data exported out of 
the GIS application into Adobe Illustrator so that 
more refined, aesthetic cartographic work could 
be done, such as adding the skull-and-cross- 
bones symbols or inserting the Godzilla 
watermark in the background. 


From reproductions of ancient Anatolia to Godzilla data source: VH1 

interactive web-based representations of the 

Third Reich and the Japanese Empire to fun maps 

exploring fictional destruction, there are really no 

limits to what can be done with GIS and digital 


An interactive version of this essay can be found 





Follow the Map 

"Map room in Cronkhite Center," Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. 

The Harvard Map Collection unites many bygone libraries—big and small, famous and forgotten. 
Ranging from a veteran's single map of Iwo Jima to the one of the eighteenth-century world's largest 
private map collections, these donated libraries have given the Harvard Map Collection both its 
material and its personality. 

"Follow the Map" invites you to trace the networks that made this collection. On the foundation of 
its largest gifts, the Map Collection has grown with the surrounding people: faculty and staff have 
donated sources; fellow travelers have returned with treasures; curators have envisioned new 
possibilities; institutional changes have transformed our purpose; and soldiers have returned from 
war with costly innovations in mapping. Each section of the exhibition highlights a selection of the 
people and maps involved in these parts of this history. 

Follow the map. 

You'll be surprised where you end up. 



The core of the Harvard Map Collection arrived 
on 25 October 1818. Shipped from Hamburg to 
Cambridge, the library of Christoph Daniel 
Ebeling arrived in 23 boxes. A teacher, scholar, 
and librarian, Ebeling had amassed one of the 
world's largest collections on the geography and 
history of North America. 

"These materials for American history must not be 
lost to us ... beg, borrow, steal the money, if need be; 

but the books we must have ." 
Edward Everett to Harvard President 
John Kirkland 

To acquire this library. Harvard needed the help 
of the wealthy merchant Israel Thorndike. 
Thorndike made his fortune in the Caribbean 
trading both commodities and enslaved Africans. 
The cost of Ebeling's library, therefore, was not 
just the dollars Thorndike spent, but the lives on 
whom Thorndike's trade preyed. Throughout its 
history, the Map Collection has always had this 
history of violence in its very structure. 

Although started on an American foundation, the 
Map Collection's focus has never been narrow. 
Indeed, Ebeling's library actually had more maps 
of Germany than it did of the US! Other 
foundational gifts have further expanded the 
collection. In 1903, the Harvard Map Collection 
bolstered its German holdings with the 
Hohenzollern Collection—orchestrated by the 
professor and librarian, Archibald Cary Coolidge. 
By accident and by design, these gifts have 
provided a pervasive, German influence to the 

Even a good foundation is only a beginning. 
"Follow the Map" shows how the Map Collection 
relied on many people to grow into a dynamic 
site for research and learning. 

2. Peter Ratke Reier, "Charte von denienigen 
sowohl Stadt Hamburgischen," 1759. 


Ebeling studied at the University of Gottingen, 
south of Hamburg. At Gottingen, Ebeling 
developed a network of colleagues and a passion 
for history based on primary sources. Although 
we don't know precisely how, these Gottingen 
connections allowed Ebeling to inherit nearly half 
his map collection from the library of a 
Hanoverian Privy Councilor named Georg 
Friedrich Brandes after Brandes' death in 1792. 

These maps of the area around Gottingen in 
Hanover would have provided practical 
information for Brandes, but perhaps more 
sentimental value to Ebeling. 

After graduating from Gottingen in 1767, he was 
hired in 1769 by the newly formed 
Handlungsakademie, or business school, in the 
free-trade haven of Hamburg. He worked and 
lived there, in the building marked on the map 
below, until 1794. 

31. F.A. von Lawrence, "Grundriss der Kayseri, freien Reichs und Handels stadt Hamburg," 1791. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


3. Georg Moritz Lowitz, "Planiglobii terrestris mappa universalis/' in Ebeling Atlas Compendius, 1746. 

4. Christoph Ebeling, Die Vereinten Staaten von 
Nord-amerika, Volume 5, 1799. 

Widener Library, KPD 3881. 

As a scholar, Ebeling was always updating and 
correcting errors—including his own. Because 
the maps in this atlas dated from the 
mid-eighteenth century, Ebeling added his own 
notes to show recent European expeditions, 
including James Cook's to Australia. 

Ebeling published the first volume of 
Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte von Amerika 
(Description and History of America) in 1793, but 
only finished seven of 13 planned volumes by his 
death in 1817. Ebeling's work was respected if 
not always easily read. Ebeling brushed off 
criticism of his dry prose in an 1809 letter, "a 
Body of Geography is not a book to be read for 
amusement, but to be consulted for use." In his 
own copy of his book, you can see Ebeling 
correcting his own and the printers' errors in pen. 

5. James Rennell, "The Hoogly River from Nuddeah to the Sea/' in A Bengal Atlas, 1781. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

Although Ebeling's own scholarship and 
publishing focused on the Americas, he 
maintained global interests. This knowledge and 
these sources were essential for teaching at the 
Handlungsakademie and collecting as the librarian 
for the city of Hamburg. 

6. Robert Dudley, "Figura 22," in Dell' arcano del 
mare, 1646-1647. Ebeling Map Collection. 

Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

James Rennell's Bengal Atlas showed the British 
military campaign in northern India and his 
larger efforts to map India comprehensively as 
the British were establishing imperial control. 
This page shows his intensive marine mapping, 
with soundings and detailed labeling of the 
offshore features around Kolkata (Calcutta), as 
well as a schematic battle view of Oudanulla, the 
site of a 1763 siege by the British. 

Without a large inheritance, Ebeling had to work 
hard to obtain all the materials for his writing 
and study. Some treatises, like Sir Robert 
Dudley's seventeenth-century maritime 
encyclopedia of nautical charts and calculations, 
were particularly expensive. Ebeling inscribed in 
its opening pages, in Latin, "most precious." 

Compiled by Sir Robert Dudley, an English 
courtier in Florence, Dell ' arcano del mare 
exemplifies the international scientific and 
diplomatic networks of a century earlier. 

Dudley was an Oxford-educated mathematician 
and engineer, who made his career designing 
ships and updating astronomical instruments 
for aid in navigation. In this treatise, Dudley 
included intricate designs like this one, for an 
instrument that measures latitude based on the 
position of the moon. 


On 17 June 1818, Israel Thorndike sent a letter to 
Harvard's president, John Thornton Kirkland 
officially presenting Ebeling's library "as a mark 
of the great esteem I feel for" Harvard. He 
enclosed a few documents relating to the 
purchase. One letter to Joseph Cogswell explains 
that Hamburg and Gottingen's libraries wanted 
Ebeling's library and quotes two prices, 900 
pounds for the 3,500 books and 600 pounds for 
his maps. A letter from Pitcairn, Brodie's & co 
shows Thorndike's final fee as $6,285, or 22,000 
Mark Banco. 

On 26 June 1818, the President and Fellows of 
Harvard College officially accepted the gift. It 
was then shipped from Hamburg in August in 23 
crates, arriving two and a half months later. 

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7. Israel Thorndike, Letter to John T. Kirkland, 17 June 1818. 
Harvard University Archives IJAIII 50.28.18. 




8. Richard Parish, Letter to Joseph Cogswell, 
23 January 1818. 

■~tt Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18. 


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9. Pitcairn, Brodie's & co. Letter to Israel 
Thorndike, 11 August 1818. 

Harvard University Archives UAIII 50.28.18. 


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10. John Kirkland, Letter to Edward Everett, 11 July 1818. 
Harvard University Archives UAI 15.884 Box 2. 

As professor of Greek at Harvard, Edward 
Everett studied at Gottingen University with an 
eye to improving Harvard. He was especially 
impressed by the "great inducement to men of 
learning" he found in Gottingen's rich library. 

Everett immediately wrote to John Kirkland. In 
their search for a donor to subsidize the 
purchase, they were, of course, aided by 
Augustus, the son of the rich Israel Thorndike 
who saw Ebeling's library for himself. 

In May 1817, Everett went with two other 
Harvard graduates—Augustus Thorndike and 
his tutor Joseph Cogswell—from Gottingen to 
Hamburg. There, he visited Ebeling and saw a 
collection Harvard needed. 

In this letter, Kirkland tells Everett the donation 
is complete. He thanks Everett for the "eloquent 
... letter written to me from Hamburgh" that 
had persuaded Thorndike to buy and donate the 


11. "Nova ducatuum 
Bremae et Verdae," 
c. 1750. Ebeling Map 
Collection. Gift of Israel 
Thorndike, 1818. 

This manuscript map shows the region to the 
west of Hamburg. It illustrates how the Elbe and 
the Weser rivers connected Hamburg and 
Bremen as major ports in northern Europe during 
Ebeling's life. 

Thorndike requested that Pitcairn, Brodie's & co 
send Ebeling's library to Boston on William Faris' 
ship, the General Stark. As this receipt shows, they 
loaded the library into 23 boxes on 12 August 
1818. From Hamburg, they would sail along the 
Elbe out to the Atlantic as they made their way to 

12. Shipping Slip, 12 
August 1818. Harvard 
University Archives 
UAIII 50.28.18. 

bl.ipped by the of God in good Order, and wejl condoned 1 ,^,,^, ^ 

and by God’s gfte bound for 10 fay 

, J T Af/i Z& 

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23. Thomas Jefferys, A General Topography of North America and the West Indies, 1768. 
Gift of Hon. Frederic North, 1830. 

For New England merchants like Israel 
Thorndike, trading in the Atlantic in the late 
eighteenth century was both risky and profitable. 
As this three-flap map in Thomas Jefferys' atlas 
shows, France, Spain, and England were 
constantly jostling for control—in and out of war 
throughout these decades. 

A merchant's ships could easily get caught in 
these hostilities and seized for trading with the 
wrong nation. 

In 1794, for instance, British naval forces 
suddenly captured the island of St. Lucia from 
French control. The English forces seized 
Thorndike's ship the Three Brothers in the harbor 
as enemy property. But, with ports shut between 
warring nations, Thorndike's ships could make 
large profits by moving goods —as long as they 
escaped capture. 


4* Dcfcription "of the Sea Coaft of Italy. ^ Prc/piffs of <h t ,h C Sea Ccafts 0 /Italy. 43 

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24. The English Pilot. Part III, describing ... the whole 
Mediterranian, 1747. Gift of Sarah A. Clarke, 

Newton, Mass., 1844. 

25. The English Pilot. Part V, describing the sea-coast... on the 
west coast of Africa, c. 1780. Gift of William B. Brown, 1851. 

Israel Thorndike traded goods 
throughout the world. His primary 
ports in Europe were in the north— 
especially Hamburg, Bremen, and 
Amsterdam. His shipments to these 
ports often included hundreds of 
boxes of sugar from Havana—130 
boxes on the Betsy in 1797 and 424 
on the Hope in 1800—which enslaved 
people harvested in Cuba. 

Beyond northern Europe, his ships 
went through every major port in 
Europe. In April 1801, for instance, 
John Lovett sailed Thorndike's ship 
the Betsy back from Naples. When 
these ships returned from Europe, 
many completed a circuit around the 
Atlantic from New England, to 
multiple islands in the Caribbean, to 
northern Europe. Thorndike's 
captains would have used pilot charts 
like these to navigate in 
Europe and the coast of Africa. 


Beyond the Atlantic trade, other ships moved 
between Salem, Europe, and the Indian and 
Pacific Oceans. Especially after the mid-1790s, 
Thorndike began to trade more in the Pacific. He 
sent ships to Calcutta, Canton, and Batavia. From 
Calcutta, the Cyrus left Salem with more than 
a dozen kegs of silver and arrived in Europe in 
1801 with a ship's worth of textiles. From Batavia, 
which had grown into a large Dutch trading port, 
another ship returned to Salem in 1801 with a 
variety of spices, including pepper. 

Thorndike translated his wealth and business 
contacts into a successful political career. He 
served for decades in the Massachusetts 
legislature and attended two state constitutional 
conventions. One of the wealthiest Americans, he 
invested heavily in textile manufacturing in the 
1810s and 1820s. 

26. Homann Erben, "Der Hollaendisch-Ostindianischen Compagnie weltberiihmte Haupt-Handels 
und Niederlags-Stadt Batavia," 1733. 

Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 



(j-RxnyDixjtSS voiv n t 




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36. Thomas Jefferys, The West-India Atlas, 1 775. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

Israel Thorndike participated both directly and 
indirectly in the Caribbean slave trade. 

Thorndike participated indirectly by selling the 
fish that fed enslaved people and purchasing the 
sugar they harvested. He would often buy sugar 
in Havana and then ship it directly to European 
ports, such as Hamburg. 

Thomas Jefferys and many other publishers 
designed atlases to aid sailors in the Caribbean as 
slave plantations relied on imports for even basic 
necessities and on exportation to European and 
US markets. Inside these books, Ebeling noted 
that he paid 3 guineas for Jefferys' book in 1777 
and 1 % guineas for Speer's in 1778. 

Thorndike participated directly in the slave trade 
by buying and selling enslaved people within the 
Caribbean. In a 4 October 1791 letter, for instance, 
he instructed Nicholas Thorndike on the 
schooner Two Friends to stop in Cap Frangais 
(now Cap Ha'itien) in Haiti to "purchase from 
five to fourteen good negroes ." By April, this ship 
had sold each of these ten enslaved people in 
Havana for $236 before purchasing sugar, 
molasses, honey, logwood, and dried hides. 

With books such as this English Pilot from 1789 
and the 1787 French atlas of Haiti, the pilot of the 
Two Friends could avoid shoals and use these 
harbor views to orient himself as he moved 
between the trading ports on these two islands. 


37. The English Pilot. The Fourth Book , describing the West-India 
navigation, 1789. Gift of Frederick Lewis Gay, 1916. 

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38. Joseph Smith Speer, The West-India Pilot, 1771. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


39. Le Pilote de lisle de Saint-Domingue, 1787. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


40. Siegfried Detlev Bendixen, "Christoph Daniel 
Ebeling," 1818. Lithograph. 

Houghton p *GB8.Eb332.P817b. 

Pictured at his desk, Christoph Ebeling points 
gently to a sideways map titled, "Amerika,"which 
shows the rough shapes of North and South 
America. On either side of this map, rest a book 
of Euripides and a sheet of music. These three 
items attest to Ebeling's abiding interest in the 
Americas, the classics, and music. 

The caption below his name comes from Horace's 
Ars Poetica, which translates as "The mind is less 
vividly stirred by what enters through the ears 
than by what comes before the faithful eyes." 
Ebeling had been almost completely deaf since 
the 1790s. After visiting in 1817, Edward Everett 
described communicating with Ebeling solely 
through notes written on a slate. 

41. Christoph Ebeling, Catalogue Mapparum 
Geographicarum, c. 1811-1817. 

Houghton MS Lat 55. 

Ebeling maintained meticulous inventories of his 
books and maps in several handwritten catalogs. 
This catalog lists all of Ebeling's maps—close to 
5,000 items or 10,000 sheets. Ebeling organized 
the maps geographically, starting with general 
maps of the world, heavens, and continents 
before moving to larger scale maps of Asia, 
Africa, and the Americas and each European 

In the absence of large public libraries, private 
libraries like Ebeling's were useful to consult for 
scholars, politicians, and other collectors. But, 
wary of less than careful borrowers of his maps, 
Ebeling wrote on the first page—even before the 
title—a stern rule in French and German: "I 
cannot lend any of the maps contained in this 
collection, to anyone no matter who ." 

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42. Christoph Ebeling, Catalogus Atlantum 
Mapparumque Illis Comprehensarum, c. 1776-1817. 
Houghton MS Lat 58. 

Kept alongside his larger Catalogus Mapparum, 
this supplement tracked the maps and atlases 
that Ebeling purchased by year and price. Ebeling 
wanted to distinguish the maps he had bought 
himself from the huge collection that, in 1794, he 
inherited from the late Georg Brandes—a 
governmental official and fellow graduate of 

Entered in 1812, for instance, is Ebeling's copy of 
the 1781 Bengal Atlas, available in the first case of 
the exhibition. 

These two registers only recorded Ebeling's 
maps and atlases. He maintained a third catalog, 
his Bibliotheca Americana, for his 3,500 books on 
North American history, geography, and culture. 

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Jedidiah Morse was a leading author of 
geographical textbooks around 1800. His 
Geography Made Easy (1784) and American 
Geography (1789) went through many editions 
with and without atlases. Ebeling tried to keep 
up with all the new editions—he had at least 
two editions of the former and six of the latter. 
He was not, however, usually impressed with 
Morse's work. This copy of the first edition of 
Morse's American Geography contains Ebeling's 
numerous corrections and annotations. 

In an 1817 letter to William Bentley, he described, 
without surprise, Morse's most recent "stale 

Morse had also been one of Ebeling's 
correspondents, but had broken off his letters 
by 1810. Morse may have soured to Ebeling's 
pointing out the errors in his books; more likely, 
Morse was preoccupied with the fight over 
Unitarianism in New England. 

44. Jedidiah Morse, Modern atlas, adapted to Morse's new School geography, 1822. 

(Bottom of previous page) 

43. Jedidiah Morse, American Geography, 1789. 
Houghton AC8 M8372 789a (B). 


Ebeling's Network 

"Your unalterable friend and wellwisher 
Ebeling. Professor and Librarian " 
Christoph Ebeling to Joel Barlow, 1812 

Christoph Ebeling was a preeminent scholar on 
the geography and history of North America, 
but he never traveled across the Atlantic. Ebeling 
instead acquired this expertise through a vast 
network of correspondents. These scholarly 
penpals included public figures such as the poet 
and diplomat Joel Barlow, writers such as 
William Bentley, and institution builders such as 
Isaiah Thomas and Jeremy Belknap, the founders 
of the American Antiquarian Society and the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 

"It is a curious fact, that the most elaborate work on 
the geography of the United States, is published at 

Hamburgh, in the German tongue" 
National Advocate, 25 September 1816 

Ebeling's many correspondents provided 
different information. Some, like Ezra Styles, 
provided drawings about regional geography. 
Others, no more so than William Bentley, 
maintained sustained relationships. Bentley and 
Ebeling communicated for more than twenty 
years. They often, as Bentley records here, sent 
books and maps to each other. 

yci v< u |>>th kiitfttiwa numumwao koufh o ona- Pfsl.ZJ. 
nrteaonk, kah pifli koonanuinitrcamw u ; kec- to* 
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wame ouit:aok pith \vah;c- a, iratta k xnvanrci ig. 
oomivoo, qu: nrwantcaucgkup, 
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ehuflooramcoongintt; utroh p fh ad: ogquc 
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ogqnewecnauettimwco nompenimweninnuur, 
pifhkutogque .quttianurcwHttr amwo> t Kehtaf- 
fcorimwi ; piih kut^gque wunnecrupanatam- 
wcycumao Stphaufuenuut \ kah woh wurroo- 
i asaranue kurattomununwnafh yeufli wamc, 
ncwuichc North kukquagwathwchtunkqunna- 
i op’!h,kah k ^wadchanumukqunnacpafti wet 

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pa'ok attumunum nurchetuhquab, nc Ch*ift. 1 j 
1 umpwefcac wafirtumwacnin p mamatxonc up- 
puhkokqur ; nc enkquatunk qnoihomomp & 410. 
wufch vramc wunnamptamoc wunanakaufi:- 
; wgaiufh. 

I Ncir nifhnoh pafuk reemunum wu'chcnih- 
;q!!ab, kah pifh upponamuc ut wufleetur Chriii, 
j kah wame p fh pafukqr.nnittcahaciniftior.tco- 
ftac rica war g: 

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45. Lewis Bayly, Manitowompae Pomantamoonk, 
1686. Houghton >f ‘AC6.E1452.665mb. 

Some of these exchanges were requests— 

Ebeling asked Bentley in 1799 for a new edition 
of Rhode Island's laws; some were recently 
published works like Hannah Adams' History of 
New England; and some were rarer materials, like 
this abridged version of Lewis Bayly's Practice of 
Piety that John Eliot had translated into the 
Massachuset language. 


46. Ezra Styles, Letters , 1794 and 1795. Houghton MS Am 825. 

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47. William Bentley, Journal of meteorological observations , 1794-1804. Houghton f MS Am 1600. 


50. Giovanni Antonio Rizzi Zannoni, Atlas Historique de la France Ancienne et Modern, 1 766. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

Many of the maps and atlases that Ebeling 
collected had their basis in the desire of different 
European governments to better understand 
their own territory. This desire took many forms. 
Sometimes it involved careful, scientific 
surveying and mapping—as in the Cassini maps 
to the right. Other times, as in this atlas, it 
involved telling a longer narrative about a 
nation's right to a particular territory. 

In this atlas, Rizzi Zannoni provides the French 
with a story of their royal history in maps. In 
1766, this story continued happily amid the reign 
of Louis XV, who personally invested in mapping 
France. Had the atlas been made a few decades 
later, it would have had to confront the violent 
conflicts over republicanism that both fascinated 
and appalled Ebeling as he watched from 


Although Christoph Ebeling did not himself own 
this complete set of maps by the Cassini family, 
he almost surely would have wanted to. 

Louis XV, after witnessing Cesar-Frangois Cassini 
de Thury's cartographic skills hrst-hand, tasked 
Cassini with making the most scientifically 
accurate and comprehensive map of France ever 

But the wars that so frustrated Ebeling and 
hampered his access to sources also plagued 
Cassini. Under the financial pressure of the 
Seven Years' War, Cassini lost royal funding. As 
a result, Cassini instead resorted to funding from 
subscribers. When Cassini died in 1784, his son 
took over the job and published the final sheets in 
1815. Bound and hand-colored, this huge volume 
contains only half of the entire set. 

51. Cesar-Frangois Cassini de Thury, "Lisieux - Honheur," in Carte Generate de la France, 1756-1815. 


About half of the maps that came with Christoph 
Ebeling's library were originally collected by 
Georg Brandes. Brandes worked for much of his 
life in the Hanoverian government overseeing 
infrastructure. Hanover, as this map shows, was 
an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire that 
spanned from Gottingen in the south to the Elbe 
River in the north. In 1769, Brandes also assumed 
administrative control of the University of 

Gottingen. In this role, he developed an 
enormous library and cultivated a vast network 
of Enlightenment intellectuals. 

Although Ebeling's primary interests were in 
North America, he inherited a huge collection of 
working governmental maps—both printed and 
manuscript—from Brandes after his death. 

58. Covens et Mortier, "L'Electorat de Hannover ou les Domaines du Roi de la Grand Bretagne en 
Allemagne," 1745. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 



While writing his geography of the United States, 
Ebeling planned an atlas to go along with it. He 
planned to include 18 sheets covering individual 
states and regions in this Atlas von Nordamerika. 

To produce the maps, Ebeling partnered with the 
Berlin-based cartographer and draftsman, Daniel 
Sotzmann. Like Ebeling's geographical volumes, 
this atlas went unfinished. Only 10 maps, all of 
individual states, are known to have been 

Ebeling based his map of Maine on one by 
Osgood Carleton, but he complained in a letter to 
Jedidiah Morse in 1796 about its insufficiencies. 
Ebeling longed for the "settlement of the Maine 
boundary" and maps of the "many new 
townships" so that he could rely on more than 
written sources. Ebeling's difficulty in attaining 
accurate maps plagued his writing and 
cartography; but it did not prevent him from 
achieving more than most writers in the US. 

59. D. F. Sotzmann, "Maine," 1798. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


60. Christoph Daniel Ebeling, "A Map of North Carolina/' 1794. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

Ebeling's interests extended well beyond the 
republicanism of the new United States. Teaching 
at the Handel sakademie in Hamburg led Ebeling 
to collect and study the political and economic 
infrastructure of Europe. This activity continued 
even after he stopped teaching and took on the 
role of the city's librarian where he sought 
materials beyond sources for his scholarly 
writings on the US. 

Ebeling owned the following copy of Olof Arre's 
1770 map of the waterfalls and canal in 
Trollhattan, Sweden. In 1787, Ebeling hand-drew 
another copy of just the lower portion of the map 
so that he could add what seem to be subsequent 
improvements to the canal at the bottom of the 


Although neither a cartographer nor a draftsman 
himself, Ebeling did produce a variety of tracings 
and working documents that he could use to 
study and write. Ebeling traced this map from 
the corresponding map in Jedidiah Morse's 1794 
edition of the American Geography. Ebeling owned 
copies of the 1789, 1793, and 1796 editions of this 
book, but not the 1794 with the map of North 
Carolina. Before portable photography, tracings 
like this provided a way for Ebeling to bring 
home a copy of the map to use when he could not 
attain the entire volume. These kinds of 
manuscript maps allowed published maps to 
circulate beyond a limited print run. 

Ebeling never finished his volume on North 
Carolina; neither did Ebeling and Sotzmann 
successfully publish a map of the state. Still, 
Ebeling was evidently gathering information 
about North Carolina and beginning to plan the 


61. Olof Jacobsson Arre, "Charta ofwer Trollhatte Slusswark," 1770. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 

62. Christoph Daniel Ebeling, "Trolhoetta," 1787. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


Ebeling's cartographic library contained 
hundreds of maps of eighteenth-century battles 
in Europe. This map, for instance, celebrates the 
military career of the Prussian king, Frederick 
the Great, from his first major battle in Mollwitz 
(1741) to the Battle of Freiberg (1762) at the end of 
the Seven Years' War. 

Despite owning all these battle maps, Ebeling 
himself detested the wars that plagued Europe in 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Indeed, 
he blamed many of the wars on the fickleness 
of kings. He hoped better for the US. In a 1799 
letter, he promised, if the US were to "imitate the 
French in their former principles of conquest—I 
would burn my whole Book and all materials for 
my Geography and History of America." 


63. Ludwig Muller, "Tableau des Guerres de Frederic le Grand," 1762. 
Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 


Ebeling and the scientific community in Europe 
relied on the circulation of printed and written 
material to debate hypotheses and share 
information. Prussia, England, and France also 
all had scientific societies that hosted discussions 
and published findings. The lower right of this 
map, for instance, has the stamp of the Royal 
Prussian Academy of Sciences. 

The map itself describes four expeditions—in 
Ecuador, Scandinavia, southern Africa, and 
France—to determine whether the earth did, 
as Newton suggested, bulge at the equator. In 
French, published in Berlin, showing global 
expeditions, and endorsed by the Prussian 
Academy, this map illustrates both the interest in 
the circulation of knowledge in Europe and the 
actual form that circulation took. 

64. Johann Christophe Rhode, "Carte des Differentes Operations pour Determiner la Figure de la 
Terre," 1755. Ebeling Map Collection. Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 



A second foundational gift of the Map Collection 
came at the opening dedication of Harvard's 
Germanic Museum (now Busch-Reisinger 
Museum). There, Archibald Cary Coolidge 
promised to donate 10,000 German books and 
named it the Hohenzollern Collection to honor 
Prince Henry of Prussia's 1902 visit. The gift's 
core was the library of Konrad von Maurer. 

To create this donation, Coolidge employed 
Walter Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein traveled in 
Europe buying as many books relating to 
German history as possible. The two kept in 
frequent contact by letter and postcard, with 
Lichtenstein occasionally, as in his 1905 letter, 
giving the current tally of the donation. 



verstorbenen Universitatsprofessbrs 

Konrad von Maurer. 

13. Katalog der Bibliothek des ... Konrad von 
Maurer, 1903. 

Harvard University Archives UAIII 

14. Postcards between Walter Lichtenstein and 
A.C. Coolidge, 1900s. 

Harvard University Archives HUG 1299 Box 5. 

Postcards continue on following page 

15. Walter Lichtenstein, Letter to Coolidge, 
30 September 1905. 

Harvard University Archives HUG 1299 Box 5. 


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Harvard University Archives HUGFP 11.10. 

17. Atlas arranged by Georg Ludwig von Maurer. 


Many of the maps in Archibald Coolidge's 
Hohenzollern Collection relate to Bavaria and 
came in the library of Konrad von Maurer. 
Although Konrad von Maurer was a historian of 
Scandinavia, his library was built upon the 
library of his father, Georg Ludwig. Also a 
historian, Georg Ludwig von Maurer studied 
German laws and land rights and served for most 
of his life as an official in the Bavarian 

In these roles, he collected many maps that 
focused on history, land, and taxation in Bavaria. 

This map, a sheet in a large-scale series of 
Bavaria, shows the "Grundsteuerkataster" — 
property tax register—for Landsberg. Its 
annotations combine updates about land values 
with notes about historical events. As a whole, 
the series documents in detail taxation in Bavaria. 

65. "Eintheilung des Koniglichen Landgerichts Landsberg," c. 1811. Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1904. 


A dizzying array of annotations almost 
completely hides the map on this page. Showing 
a tiny area in Bavaria, the map, probably 
annotated by Georg Ludwig von Maurer, 
documents both historical events and 
information on taxation. 

Some annotations begin with a date, mostly 
between 1100 and 1400. 

Ending with the Latin for "witness," these 
notations seem to suggest the first available 
documentation for particular estates. Other 
annotations include three figures. These three 
numbers seem to indicate the monetary value of 
an estate. All this information would have been 
useful to von Maurer as both legal historian and 
government official. 

66. "Bavaria, Vicinity of Nordlingen," c. 1813. Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1904. 


Archibald Cary Coolidge taught history for 16 
years at Harvard before becoming the director of 
the library in 1910. With considerable 
inheritances from uncles and grandparents, 
Coolidge never needed a salary and, in fact, used 
personal funds for gifts like the Hohenzollern 
Collection. These gifts often—but not always— 
centered on his own professional interests in 
Russia, the Balkans, and Central Europe. 

This map, for instance, connects with his work 
editing an English edition of The Secret Treaties 
of Austria-Hungary, 1879-1914 (1920-1) by Alfred 
Pribram. Covering the historical period before 
this volume, the map registers changes in the 
Austro-Hungarian Empire. Someone pasted over 
the Venetia-Lombardy region to adjust what had 
been a map of the Austrian Empire to reflect the 
new borders of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 
after 1867. 

67. Karl Czoernig, "Ethnographische Karte der Oesterreichischen Monarchic," 1857. 
Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1912. 


In building on the von Maurers' library, Coolidge 
wanted to provide Harvard with a 
comprehensive array of sources about the history 
of the German lands. Coolidge hired Walter 
Lichtenstein to travel Europe and purchase books 
for Coolidge and the Hohenzollern Collection. 
While he mostly bought books, he did acquire a 
significant number of maps. Like the rest of the 
Hohenzollern Collection, these maps built on the 

core of Bavarian material in the von Maurers' 
library while broadening out to include material 
on all the German lands. 

This map, one of the maps that extended the 
coverage of Bavaria, depicts religious affiliation 
in the region through the parishes and 
population serving different faiths. 





68. Georg Mayr, "Karte der Kirchlichen Eintheilung des Konigreichs Bayern," 1841. 
Gift of A.C. Coolidge, 1906. 


Scholars and Staff 

Although Archibald Cary Coolidge's generosity 
was virtually unmatched among other faculty 
and staff, he was only one of many affiliates to 
shape the Map Collection while still at Harvard. 
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries, other Harvard faculty, students, and 
alumni enriched the Map Collection by 
depositing the material of their work and study. 

For scholars like Erwin Raisz and Francis 
Parkman, these maps were at the heart of their 
scholarship and teaching: for Raisz, textbooks 
and geological cross-sections made in lecture; for 
Parkman, dozens of manuscript copies of rare 
maps from around the world used in writing the 
many volumes of France and England in North 
America (1865-1892). But for others, like the art 
historian Charles Eliot Norton, the maps, 
although important works, were almost 
incidental parts of much larger libraries given 
over many years. 

In January 1894, the Map Collection received 89 
maps from the library of Francis Parkman (A.B. 
1844). Parkman, who had died just two months 
earlier, collected and made these maps while 
writing his multi-volume history of French 
Canada. These maps ranged from recent US 
Coast Survey charts of North America to 
manuscript copies of rare or hard to access 
originals. To obtain copies of these maps, 
Parkman enlisted friends of colleagues, much as 
Christoph Ebeling had done decades earlier. 

This map of the 1690 English siege of Quebec, for 
instance, was probably copied for Parkman by 
Pierre-Louis Morin, the Land Surveyor of Lower 
Canada, on one of his research trips to Paris in 
the 1840s. The original map, also a manuscript, 
was in Paris and is now held at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale de France. 

Brought together, two centuries' worth of 
donations from students and faculty show 
scholars at work. With them, the Map Collection 
attests not just to the history of maps but the 
making of knowledge with and through 

69. Robert de Villeneuve, "Plan de Quebec, et de 
ses Environs, en la Nouvelle France Assiege par 
les Anglois," 1690, copied c. 1850. 

Gift of Francis Parkman, 1894. 


Charles Eliot Norton (A.B. 1846) taught Art 
History at Harvard from 1874 until his retirement 
in 1898. He donated to the library throughout his 
life and, when he died in 1905, most of the rest of 
his library came to Harvard. His donations 
included rare Latin manuscripts, forty fifteenth- 
century printed books, and numerous other rare 

Eliot's donations also included much more 
common items, such as this map from the 
Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The advent 
of lithographic printing meant newspapers and 
maps proliferated with accounts of battles and 
advances. Lithography also allowed maps like 
this one, printed from a drawing sent back with a 
general's report, to appear in executive 
documents of the United States House of 

70. Edmund Lafayette Hardcastle, "Sketch of the Operations of the 1st Division of the US Army .... 
Battle of El Molino del Rey," 1848. Gift of Charles Eliot Norton, 1863. 


Composite atlases like this one could be made to 
order from a publisher with specific sheets or 
assembled later from sheets collected 
individually. A surgeon who lived on Wing's 
Lane near Faneuil Hall in Boston, Miles 
Whitworth either inherited this personalized 
Dutch atlas or ordered it himself from a book 
seller. The table of contents notes that some 
sheets are missing—but it's unclear if they are 
sheets Whitworth never had or ones that were 

Like some gifts, this donation came to Harvard 
with conditions. Although it would belong to the 
library, John Winthrop, Hollis Professor of 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, would 
keep it "for his perusal and use." Winthrop 
himself led Harvard's first scientific expedition, a 
trip in 1761 to Newfoundland to see the transit of 

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54. Composite Atlas Made by Miles Whitworth, c. 1760. Gift of Miles Whitworth, 1763. 


Erwin Raisz (1893-1968) was a cartographer and 
geographer who spent his career showing the 
Earth in new ways and teaching others to do so 
as well. This unusual view shows Europe with a 
cross-section, a format that Raisz employed often 
in the regions he mapped. He had been trained as 
an architectural draftsman while at school in 
Budapest, before moving to the United States 
after World War I. He obtained a PhD in geology 
from Columbia University, then started working 

in 1931 as a lecturer and map curator at 
Harvard's Institute of Geographical Exploration. 
This visually dramatic map shows his unique 
blend of his skills: his artistic renderings of 
mountains and cities fit neatly into the 
carefully labeled geological layers of the region. 
The cross-section shows more than traditional 
maps could about how the space shared by 
physical and man-made features. 

29. Erwin Raisz, 

"From Lubeck to Milan," 1960-1968. 
Gift of the Raisz Family. 


55. Erwin Raisz, General Cartography , 1938. Gif t of Erwin Raisz. 

Written by Institute of Geographical Exploration 
(IGE) lecturer Erwin Raisz, these two textbooks 
showcase Raisz's innovations in visualizations — 
at their largest in the immense cross section map, 
"From Lubeck to Milan," earlier in this 
exhibition. General Cartography was the first 
textbook on cartography in English. It not only 
included a meticulously researched history of 
cartographic practice but also the innovations 

for modern cartography that Raisz pioneered 
while he was teaching at the IGE. Raisz published 
the Atlas of Global Geography while he was making 
maps for the US government during World War 
II. The Atlas is full of cartograms and projections 
that he invented for the sake of negotiating peace 
as well as maps created through the use of aerial 

56. Raisz, Atlas of Global Cartography, c. 1944. Gift of Erwin Raisz. 



49. [A Complete Map of the 

Seacoast of the Seven Provinces Along the 
Coast]/' c. 1840. Gift of J.K. Fairbank, 1987. 

John King Fairbank began researching China as a 
Harvard student in the 1920s and continued until 
he retired as a Harvard professor. As Fairbank 
later recalled, "China appealed to me at age 
twenty-two as something interesting that no 
one else seemed to be doing." In 1955, Fairbank 
founded Harvard's East Asian Research Center— 
renamed for him in 1973. In 1987 he donated 
several maps of China and Korea, including this 
22-foot-long manuscript scroll map of coastal 
China (reproduced here at actual size). In his 
letter donating the map, Fairbank commented 
that "the map world should be unified and just 
because this map is in Chinese it should not be 
consigned to the Chinese library." 


Fellow Travelers 

Rooted in place, the Map Collection has always 
relied on travelers, collectors, and cartographers 
returning from their travels with maps. With 
their donations, these fellow travelers have 
instilled the Map Collection with their own 
personalities and the evidence of their lives. For 
Ukrainian nationalist and emigre Bohdan 
Krawciw, this network brought together the 
fierce longing for an independent homeland and 
his life in New York after World War II. For the 
activist and politician Charles Sumner, this 
network bridged pre-Civil War anti-slavery 
activism and his international diplomacy after 
the Civil War. For doctor and collector Ernest 
Goodrich Stillman, this network connected his 
family's banking and real estate on the US- 
Mexican border with his love of and travel in 

Even as these personal collections have been 
separated into different folders and different 
shelves, they have given the Map Collection 
a structure on which it can continue to build. 
Despite coming from a variety of backgrounds 
and parts of the world, these generous donors 
have been predominantly white men. As a result, 
the interests and practices of, predominantly, 
wealthy, white men have created the collection's 
often invisible and unspoken framework, which 
can therefore eclipse the perspectives of people 
who did not share their privilege. 


Henry Walling stands apart in the history of 
American mapmakers, both for his output and 
his commitment to accuracy. He began his career 
mapping his native Rhode Island before map¬ 
ping the counties and towns of Massachusetts. 

As a commercial mapmaker, Walling published 
around 400 maps covering areas in 20 states. 

The Harvard Map Collection holds close to 100 
maps produced by Walling and his various 
partners. Walling himself donated 26 of his maps, 
including this one of Middlesex County, in 1859 
while he was set up in New York. We don't know 
why he chose to donate the maps at to Harvard, 
but we are thankful that he did. 


48. Henry F. Walling, "Map of Middlesex County/' 1856. Gift of Henry Walling, 1859. 


Charles Sumner's entire library came to Harvard 
in 1874 as part of Sumner's bequest after his 
death in 1872. In his will, he also left a substantial 
portion of his wealth to Harvard's library 
because, as he wrote, "all my life I have been a 
user of books, and having few of my own I have 
relied on the libraries of friends and on public 

When this map was published in 1868, Sumner, 
the long-serving senator, was heavily involved 
in international relations. He was instrumental 
in annexing the Alaskan territory, and he rallied 
against US imperialism in the Caribbean. 
Whether or not this map was practically useful 
for such work, it likely served at least as a 
memento for Sumner's many travels and global 

71. Tehuantepec Railway Co., "Tehuantepec Railway Company's Chart of the World on Mercator's 
Projection," 1868. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1872. 


"A. Shortfellow"—pseudonym of William Russell 
West, a Philadelphia architect—published this 
map in The Proof-Sheet. When the Boston-elite¬ 
bashing satire was printed in 1869, the nationally 
acclaimed Atlantic Monthly was under scrutiny 
because of another figure named in the map, 
abolitionist writer Harriet Beecher Stowe. Stowe 
had published an article in the Atlantic that year 

that denounced the poet Lord Byron for cheating 
on his wife with his half-sister. Many readers, 
who loved his poetry, were enraged at the 
salacious story and its being made public. 
Banishing her to a "guano island" —a Peruvian 
islands being mined for fertilizer-rich bird 
droppings - probably seemed like a suitable 
punishment to many readers. 

Ma/J - /sf/. I /j 

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72. A. Shortfellow, "Map of Boston and adjacent country showing that city to be the geographical as 
well as intellectual and moral centre of one half of the globe," 1869. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1872. 


The abolitionist William Bloss, whose home in 
upstate New York was an Underground Railroad 
stop, made this map during the 1856 "Bleeding 
Kansas" crisis. Using text at the bottom of this 
map written by Sumner and Henry Ward 
Beecher, Bloss illustrated in this map the uneasy 
balance of power that kept slavery out of 
northern states. 

Sumner suffered for his abolitionism. After he 
vehemently denounced Kansas in the Senate this 
same year, the South Carolina congressman 
Preston Brooks famously beat Sumner with a 
cane so violently that Sumner was nearly killed 
and had to leave the Senate to recover for 
several years. He gave this map to Harvard in 
1860, while he was still partly convalescing. 

9IISii s.illi 1*1 flillftii!!* 


BY WILLiam C. i LOS! 

73. William C. Bloss, "Map of the United States and Territories Showing the Possessions and 
Aggressions of the Slave Power," 1856. Gift of Charles Sumner, 1860. 


William Sumner Appleton (A.B. 
I860, LL.B. 1865) was an expert 
on coins and heraldry. In 1861, 
his father, Nathan, died leaving 
him enough money that he never 
needed a salary. Nathan had been 
a successful Boston merchant, who 
worked exporting cloth and 
importing European goods before 
focusing on manufacturing and 
politics. Given the timing of his 
donation, the maps probably 
belonged to Nathan, perhaps 
acquired to study trading ports, but 
did not seem to interest William 

The note on the bottom map 
explains in Spanish that it is a 
reduced version of a map made by 
the Nautical Academy in Lima and 
that the upper map is copied from 
an English map by James Colnett. 

74. "Carta del Archipelago de los Galapagos," based on a map 
by James Colnett, c. 1809. 

Gift of William Sumner Appleton, 1863. 

75. "Carta Reducida que 
Comprende una Parte 
de Ambas Americas en 
el Mar del Sur," c. 1805. 
Gift of William Sumner 
Appleton, 1863. 


53. Guillaume Delisle, "Carte d'une Partie des 
Cantons de Berne de Fribourg du Pais/' in Atlas 
Nouveau, 1733. Gift of John Peabody Monks, 1924. 

Travels in the real and imagined worlds combine 
on this stunning page from Delisle's atlas, created 
for the Duke of Burgundy. This map conjures an 
idyllic image of Switzerland with mountains, 
waterfalls, and cheerfully hard-working peasants. 
This scene devolves completely into fantasy upon 
reaching the "Mountain of the Dragon in the 
region of Lucerne." Here, a hr e-breathing dragon 
emerges from a peak, as if to warn the travelers 
admiring the waterfall not to lose themselves 
deep in the hinterland. As atlases became 
increasingly technical and cartographers 
included shifting borders and settlements in ever 
greater detail, mapmakers still found ways to 
include whimsical details to entice buyers who 
wanted beauty as much as they wanted 


To trace the development of the Map Collection, 
"Follow the Map" highlights a variety of 
donations—from employees, alumni, and 
other benefactors. These gifts and the people who 
made them often inspired future donors. Ernest 
G. Stillman (A.B. 1908), for instance, took 
inspiration from Archibald Coolidge, who led 
Stillman and other students on a trip to Japan in 
1905. In his diary made during the journey, 
Stillman recounted dining with the Japanese 
Emperor, shopping in Kyoto, and the scenery 
in Nikko. He also detailed, with a map, how his 
steamship almost collided with a nearby 
Japanese steamer. 

As Stillman told a later director of the library, 
before the trip, Coolidge had shown Stillman the 
barely "five foot shelf of books relating to Japan." 
The poverty of Harvard's Japanese collection 
spurred Stillman, in the 1930s and 1940s, to 
donate hundreds of maps, pamphlets, 
photographs, and books gathered from his study 
and travel in Japan. As you progress through the 
exhibition, you will learn more about Stillman 
and these other personalities now combined in 
our collection. 

19. E.G. Stillman, Diary, 2 July-7 September 1905. 
Houghton MS Am 1196. 

7 January 1942. 

12 January 1942. Harvard University Archives 
UAIII Box 93. 



18. Photo with E.G. Stillman, A.C. Coolidge, and 
W.H. Taft, 1905. Harvard University Archives 
HUG 1299 Box 7. 

On 11 July 1937, Ernest Stillman's personal 
librarian sent a note to Harvard's Assistant 
Librarian that seven boxes were on their way to 
the library. Among them were maps, he noted, 
that "every Japanese" visitor has been amazed 
were owned by "an American citizen." The maps 
were interesting enough that, by that October, 
Erwin Raisz had scooped them up for the 
Institute for Geographical Exploration. 

Ernest Stillman's donation included a wide range 
of materials that reflected his broad interests. 

A medical researcher in pulmonology, Stillman 
sponsored horticultural research, invented 
machinery, and practiced photography— 
thousands of his photos are now in Harvard's 
collections. His obituary mentions being known 
for arriving at fires in New York City carrying 
both "his first-aid kit and a moving picture 

76. Shihei Hayashi "The Three Ryukyu Provinces" -=.+7x1111 (DEI, c. 1790. 

Gift of E.G. Stillman. 


By 1905, Nikko had become a popular tourist site 
for domestic and foreign travelers. As this map 
shows, Nikko enticed visitors with gorgeous 
rivers and waterfalls covering a landscape full of 
seventeenth-century shrines. In a 1 August 1905 

entry in the diary from his school trip to Japan, 
reproduced here, Ernest Stillman mentions 
seeing Nikko's "beautiful lakes and river" and 
venturing to the shrines where he saw the "place 
thronged with pilgrims in their white costumes." 

77. Mohei Inoue Hi, "A Panoramic View 

of the Nikko Empire of Japan" ^ST^^gS^'clll 
-5t£H, 1900. Gift of E.G. Stillman. 

In this diary, Stillman lists four and a half yen 
for a print of Nikko. Perhaps it was this one, he 
donated no others of Nikko. 

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Not all of E.G. Stillman's donations had to do 
with Japan. Stillman's grandfather had begun 
an extensive banking and real estate business in 
Brownsville, Texas—almost the southernmost 
point in the state. Stillman's father—James 
Jewett—built up this business even further. His 
land deals along the border established his 
credentials enough to earn him a position as the 
chairman of National City Bank. 

J.J. Stillman even financially supported Porhrio 
Diaz and his Plan of Tuxtepec in 1876. 

This map of the border between Texas and 
Mexico in the 1870s shows the ranches on both 
sides of the river. The note explains that it was 
made to study and eliminate robberies—useful 
information for a real estate investor! 

78. M.T. Martinez, "Mapa del Rio Grande desde su Desembocadura en el Golfo hasta San Vicente, 
Presidio Antiguo," c. 1873. Gift of E.G. Stillman. 



In 1952, Stephen W. Phillips and Curt H. 
Reisinger purchased for Harvard 159 maps from 
the New York dealer H. P. Kraus. In 1949, Kraus 
had purchased the map library of the royal 
family of Liechtenstein, the bulk of which Prince 
Johann II had acquired from the cartographer 
Franz von Hauslab in 1883. The 159 maps now at 
Harvard were considered 159 of the "choicest" 
maps, mostly rare sixteenth-century material. 

The bulk of the Liechtenstein-Hauslab library is 
now at the Library of Congress. 

The Liechtenstein maps now reside at Houghton 
Library because, in 1952, the Map Collection was 
in flux. It was short on space in Widener after the 
return of modern maps from the recently closed 
Institute for Geographical Exploration. 


33. Caspar Vopel, "Nova et integra universalisque orbis totius," 1558. Houghton p 51-2577. 
Liechtenstein Map Collection. 

Marguerite McBey donated 107 maps, primarily 
of northern Africa, in 1973 based on a chance 
encounter with Professor Robert Chapman. 
Chapman, then the director of the Loeb Drama 
Center, met McBey while travelling in Tangier, 
where McBey had moved decades earlier with 
her late husband, a well-known artist. In a 4 May 
1971 letter. Chapman passed along to the curator 
Frank Trout that McBey had a hundred maps 
that she would eventually like to donate 
somewhere. After letters back and forth about 
Morocco and maps, McBey and Trout finalized 
the donation. Chapman himself brought the 
maps to London to ship to the US. Many of the 
107 maps, like this one, show the Strait of 
Gibraltar, which McBey could see from her estate 
and house, El Foolk. 

She signed all her letters: ^ 

79. Jacques Beilin, "Carte du Detroit de Gibraltar," 1761. Gift of James and Marguerite McBey, 1973. 


The estate of Susan Norton left the Harvard 
Library with a unique assortment of items: scores 
of autographs from letters to Charles Eliot 
Norton; dozens of Italian watercolors; a delicate 
book of pressed plants each annotated with 
quotations from Shakespeare. The estate also 
included both a beautifully written, bound 
manuscript in Arabic and this map of Africa. A 
previous owner, most likely before it came into 
Norton's estate, has relabeled in an Arabic script 
the various place names that the printed map 
labeled in English. As this map suggests, even 
with some provenance, a map can still contain 
plenty of mystery. 

By representing the interior of southern Africa as 
completely empty, Arrowsmith's map 
encouraged European exploration—and 
exploitation. In turn, the manuscript annotations 
invoke the Ottoman Empire and the spread of 
Islam in Africa prior to European colonialism. 

57. Aaron Arrowsmith, 'Africa," 1811. Bequest of Susan Norton, 1990. 


80. Joseph Nicholas Delisle, "Mappa Generalis Totius Imperii Russici," 1745. 
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005. 

Bohdan Krawciw began collecting maps of 
Ukraine upon his arrival in the United States 
from war-torn Central Europe in 1949. A 
dissident poet and journalist, he sought greater 
recognition of Ukraine as an independent nation, 
free from Polish, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and 
Soviet influence. With his personal collection of 
over 700 maps, Krawciw intended to write a 
general history of Ukraine called Monumenta 
Cartographica Ucrainae (Cartographic Monuments 
of Ukraine). But he left the project unfinished at 
his death in 1975. 

Although Krawciw sought Ukrainian 
independence, not all his maps shared the same 
view or even prioritized Ukraine. This 1745 map, 
for instance, shows the vast Russian Empire with 
parts of Ukraine only at the very western 
periphery—labeled in Russian as "Kiewskaia 
Guberniia," "Bielogorodskaia Guberniia," and 


Starting in 1648, French military engineer 
Guillaume Le Vasseur Beauplan created a series 
of maps of Ukraine. Beauplan's maps provided 
detailed surveys of what had been a relatively 
unmapped region. This map of the Dniepr River, 
Ukraine's largest and most important waterway, 
includes nine waterfalls that hindered boat travel. 

In addition to their geographic detail, Beauplan's 

maps represented Ukraine's cultural history, 
particularly the Cossacks in the map cartouches. 
To Bohdan Krawciw, Beauplan's cartography 
established a European picture of Ukrainian 
identify. Indeed, for over a century Beauplan's 
maps served as the authoritative foundation 
for future cartographers, ensuring that Ukraine 
would commonly be labeled as the "Land of the 

81. Guillaume Le Vasseur Beauplan, "Tractus Borysthenis, Vulgo Dniepr et Niepr Dicti," 1662. 
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005. 


82. Heorg Hasenko, "Svitova Mapa: z Rozmishchenniam Ukrai'ntsiv Po Svitu," 1920. 
Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005. 

Bohdan Krawciw built his collection to document 
important aspects of Ukrainian culture, history, 
and geography. This map illustrates the 
demographic mobility that characterized Ukraine 
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The 
first of these waves of emigration occurred 
between 1880 and 1920, largely in response to 
agrarian resettlement. Many emigrants favored a 
part of far eastern Russian called Zeleny Klyn— 
or Green Ukraine—prominent on the map as a 
red zone on the Pacific Coast of Russia. 

Other emigrants chose North America, notably 
the major cities on the Eastern Seaboard, the 
Midwest, and several Canadian cities. A table 
on the map notes that over 1.2 million emigrants 
made their way to North America from 1821 to 
1915. This wave of emigration foreshadowed an 
even larger emigration from 1920 to the end of 
World War II. 


83. "Ukraine," 1919. Gift of Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw, 2005. 

This postcard illustrates the upheaval occurring 
in Ukraine when Bohdan and Neonila Krawciw 
were children. Six different armies occupied its 
territory, and the capital, Kiev, changed hands 
five times in less than a year. The cities emptied 
as starving citizens fled to the countryside and 
contact with the outside world was almost 
completely cut off. 

Having witnessed firsthand the collapse of their 
homeland, and fearing its continued political 
fragility, Neonila organized the map collection 
on index cards and kept the collection private for 
almost three decades after her husband's death. 
Following Neonila's death in 2003, their daughter 
Maria Dzwenyslawa continued organizing it and 
then donated the "Bohdan and Neonila Antique 
Ucrainica Map Collection" to Harvard. In doing 
so, she united the Krawciws' maps with Bohdan 
Krawciw's personal papers and library held at 
Harvard's Ukrainian Research Institute. 


Born in 1935 in L'viv in what is now Ukraine, 
Nicholas Krawciw arrived with his family from 
Germany to a Ukranian-American community 
in Philadelphia. A member of the Plast National 
Scout Organization of Ukraine as a child, 
Krawciw took to military life and graduated from 
West Point in 1959. After serving two tours in 
Vietnam, he continued a long career where he 
became an Army Major General. In 1993, he 
worked in Ukraine to help restructure the 
Ukrainian army in line with democratic 

Drawn on the back side of a Russian map (most 
likely a duplicate in his father's collection), this 
manuscript map of "Prospect Park" is signed 
"Scout J. Demydchuk." Whether a nom de plume 
for the younger Krawciw or a fellow emigre boy 
scout, this map provides an extensive legend for 
the natural features and even displays elevation 
data, with contour line intervals of one foot. 



"I am at Bachelor Station 
any inducement to move to City of Bliss?" 

A sly wedding proposal to Esther Johnson on one of 
Siegfried Feller's Postcards 

In 2007, Siegfried Feller donated his passion 
project, over 10,000 cartographic postcards. For 
more than a decade. Feller had run a newsletter, 
Cartomania, that included regular quizzes. Many 
subscribers set in their answers on map postcards 
to Feller's home in Pelham, Massachusetts. Feller 
added postcards sent from friends and many he 
purchased, some of which have personal notes 
in many different languages dating back as far as 
the 1890s. Before his retirement. Feller worked for 
more than twenty years as the chief bibliographer 
at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. 

Postcards continue on following page 



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52. Abraham Ortelius, Theatrum orbis terrarium Abrahami Orteli Antverp: The Theater of the Whole World, 
1606. Gift of Charles J. Tanenbaum, 2001. 

As the only edition of the Abraham Ortelius'' 
famous atlas published in English, this atlas was 
one of the most important, single items donated 
to the Map Collection in the new millennium. It 
complements the Collection's 1633 English 
edition of Gerhard Mercator's Atlas, the other 
monumental atlas of Early Modern Europe. 

Beginning in 1570, Ortelius standardized his map 
formatting and insisted on consistent 
composition and arrangement. These changes 
marked a huge shift in map publishing and were 
hugely popular. Originally published in Latin, 
further editions incorporated vernacular 
European languages and grew from the 53 maps 
in the 1570 edition to 119 maps in later editions. 


Curators and Staff 

On the framework that donors have provided, 
staff at the Map Collection have sought a vision 
for the future. Although the collection began in 
1818, the first curator started only in 1884. 

Justin Winsor, the Librarian of Harvard 
University and a historian of cartography, 
appointed Henry Badger. Badger actively 
solicited donations and created a classification 
scheme. For several decades after Badger finished 
in 1892, the collection lived without a permanent 

The permanent curators picked up again in 1939, 
with Robert Haynes and Mary Bryan serving the 
longest. Beginning in 1966 Frank Trout devoted 
his time to acquiring topographic series. He 
understood these both as working documents— 
people often came to consult the most recent 
maps—and also as historical sources. Even still, 
when David Cobb began in 1992, he found a 
collection that had not changed in vision since 
1966. Mapping was rapidly changing. Data and 
GIS needed to be a major part of the Map 

All these curators negotiated between building 
on the collection's strengths and filling in its 
gaps. By excavating the Map Collection's history, 
we will build into our third century with a better 
understanding of the politics of these "strengths" 
and "gaps." 

List of Curators 

Henry Badger (1884-1892) 

Walter Briggs (1915-1938), part-time 
Robert Haynes (1939-1947) 

William K Naulty (1948-1951) 

Mary Bryan (1952-1960) 

Robert Haynes (1961-1963) 

James Romer (1963-1964) 

Rosemary Weber (1964-1966) 

Frank Trout (1966-1991) 

David Cobb (1992-2008) 

Joseph Garver (2008-2015) 

Bonnie Burns (2015-) 

100. Gerard Mercator, [Terrestrial Globe], 1541 
and [Celestial Globe], 1551. Transfer from the 
Institute for Geographical Exploration. 

In 1928, book dealer Philip Rosenbach acquired 
this pair of globes and donated both to Harvard's 
Institute for Geographical Exploration in 1936. 
After the IGE closed, they were transferred to the 
Map Collection. 

When curator David Cobb arrived in 1992, he 
rediscovered these neglected treasures. With the 
support of J. Christopher Flowers ('79) and Mary 
H. White, and Carl H. Pforzheimer III ('58, MBA 
'63) and Betty Pforzheimer, Cobb gave these 
artifacts a new life. With Boston Map Society 
member Jeremy Pool ('67), Cobb developed a 
website to allow the world to navigate the globes 
online. As curator, Cobb brought the collection 
into the digital age and was a founder of the 
BMS. But he sees preserving and providing 
access to these globes as one of the most 
important accomplishments of his tenure. 

Details on following page 

As the first permanent curator, Henry Badger 
faced a daunting task. Harvard's cartographic 
collection had never had its own classification 
system nor had Harvard been particularly active 
in collecting maps. Badger petitioned the 
university to provide a fund dedicated to 
acquiring maps. In addition, in the local 
newspaper the Boston Evening Transcript, Badger 
even published a note stating that "gifts of old 

maps, atlases, or school atlases, no matter how 
poor or worthless as they may appear to be, are 
gratefully received." 

Badger followed his own advice in donating 
this map of the Arctic. It shows in red the many 
explorations north, including one added by hand 
to show the route of the USS Polaris in 1872 and 


85. William Bauman, "Map of the North Polar Region," 1875. Gift of Henry Clay Badger, 1888. 

Institutional Changes 

The Map Collection has moved, contracted, and 
(mostly) reassembled alongside the changing 
university. The most dramatic shifts followed 
the opening of the Institute for Geographical 
Exploration (IGE) in 1930. The cartographer 
Erwin Raisz became the IGE's map curator and 
the library transferred its geographically up-to- 
date maps there. But, only 22 years later. Harvard 
closed the institute. Harvard's administration 
was suspicious of both the IGE as a bastion of 
amateur explorers and also geography's very 
suitability as an academic discipline. 

When the IGE closed in 1952, the return of the 
up-to-date maps overwhelmed storage in rooms 
L, M, and N of Widener Library. In 1956, the 
Associate University Librarian recommended 
effectively dismantling the Map Collection 
because, compared to past generations, "the 
present generation of historians does not employ 
maps as intensively." The Map Collection sent 
114atlases to Houghton Library and thousands of 
other maps to Harvard-Yenching, the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Landscape Architecture, 
and the Business School. 

In the 1970s, these materials mostly returned 
to the more spacious Map Collection in Pusey 
Library—the atlases returned from Houghton 
in 1987. As Harvard Library has sought a more 
unified approach —consolidating and shrinking 
some libraries—the Map Collection has grown. 
Through these institutional changes, we can 
better understand the changing meaning of a 
unified cartographic collection. 

22. Robert Haynes, Memo on the Map Collection 
and the Institute for Geographical Exploration, 
1952. Harvard University Archives UAV 461.451. 

Memo continues on following page 


As the Map Collection has grown through 
donations and acquisitions, it has also adapted to 
institutional shifts. In particular, the opening of 
Houghton Library in 1942 and the tempestuous 
tenure of the Institute for Geographical 
Exploration (IGE) from 1930 to 1952. 

When the IGE opened, the library transferred its 
most up-to-date maps there. The curator, Erwin 
Raisz, maintained the contemporary collection 
at the IGE while the historical maps were kept 
on the 3rd floor of Widener. When IGE closed 
in 1952, however, the Map Collection's curator, 
Robert Haynes, was asked to assess how to bring 
the IGE's collection back to the Map Collection. 
Short on space, he suggested transferring many 
of the rare materials to the new Houghton 

86. Institute of Geographical Exploration, 
"Mosaic Made from 12 Vertical Air Photographs 
over Scituate Harbor and Vicinity1934. 
Transfer from the IGE. 

The staff and faculty at the Institute of 
Geographical Exploration were enthusiastic 
about the possibilities aerial photography offered 
to mapmaking. H.E. Whitman prepared this print 
using several photographs stitched together, in 
order to mimic a map. As time went on, the IGE 
supplemented and added details to its maps 
using aerial photographs, especially in wartime. 
By combining aerial photographs into a mosaic 
like this one, IGE geographers synthesized new 
technology with their many years of cartographic 
training. Combining technologies across 
disciplines and time periods has always been, 
and continues to be, a hallmark of making maps. 


87. Waterlow and Sons, "General Map of the Witwatersrand Gold Fields/' 1896. 
Transfer from the IGE. 

This map exemplifies how mapmaking is often 
tied to imperialism. Published in London, the 
map shows the holdings of the Consolidated 
Gold Fields of South Africa, Ltd., a company 
created ten years earlier when the Witwatersrand 
Gold Rush began. As the gold rush gained 
momentum, the British began a concerted effort 
to take over the land. This aggression led directly 
to the Jameson Raid of 1895-96 (while this map 
was in production) and then to the Second Boer 
War in 1899. 

Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology 
obtained this map, then passed it along to the 
Institute of Geographical Exploration when the 
latter was founded. The IGE consolidated 
Harvard collections from expeditions that 
brought back geographic and geological 
information, many of which are morally 
problematic by today's standards. 


This map of Indonesia is one of the top-secret 
maps—labeled as such in Japanese in the upper 
right—made by the Japanese Army during World 
War II. During the war, the US government 
frequently consulted and borrowed maps held at 
the Institute of Geographical Exploration. 
Afterwards, the Library of Congress obtained 
Japanese military maps like this one captured by 
the Allied forces. 

The government then gave more than 6,000 of 
these captured maps that duplicated their 
holdings to IGE along with the maps the 
government had borrowed. 

The overprinting in different colors provides 
details that Japanese forces could use as they 
sought to expand their empire in the Pacific. Its 
detailed practicality, though, masks the death 
and destruction that followed behind it. 

88. Japanese Army, PH1E, #iS^n|5, "Sheet 1: Sorong," in Seibu "Nyu Ginia" heiyo chishi shiryo zu, 1943. 
Transfer from the IGE. 


89. Karl Squires Engineers, "Zoning Map of Greater Miami/' 1935. 
Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design. 


From a practical standpoint, maps can be difficult 
for a traditional library to store. As libraries on 
campus have become pressed for space, many 
maps have been moved around campus. With 
space shortages in Widener, the Map Collection 
had transferred many atlases by the Sanborn 
Insurance Company and other maps to the 
Frances Loeb Library at the GSD. In 1971, these 
atlases were returned to the Map Collection 
along with thousands of other maps as the Map 
Collection moved into the more spacious Pusey 

The Loeb Library transferred this plan of garden 
village (tuindorp) street profiles along with many 
landscape architecture maps to the Map 
Collection in the 1970s. Produced in 1916, this 
map shows how the early tuindorp movement in 
the Netherlands attempted to address 
substandard and crowded housing for Dutch 
workers. This sketch focuses on landscape rather 

The maps from Loeb focus on zoning, planning, 
and landscape design maps—topics that lend 
themselves to large maps at small scales, such as 
the preceding tropically colored zoning map of 
Miami from the 1930s. 

than buildings. It set standards for how wide 
the streets should be and the distance between 
house, sidewalk, and street. 

This type of working document often did not 
survive. Given the state of post-World War I 
Europe, it is even more surprising that this item 
still exists. 

90. Granpre Moliere-Verhagen en Kok 
Architecten, "Nueerste Rotterdamich Tuindorp 
Plan van Uitbreiding Dwarsprohelen," c. 1916. 
Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard 
Graduate School of Design. 

j S+ree-f3-"C»^8-9^yow» 46-A 


National parks are an interesting intersection of 
conservation, planning and landscape 
architecture. Loeb Library collected many master 
plans over the years, some of which were 
transferred to the Map Collection during a recent 
renovation of the Loeb Library space. 

This is the cover sheet for the hand-colored 

master plan for Crater Lake National Park in 
Eastern Oregon. The lake was formed by the 
eruption and collapse of Mount Mazama more 
than 7,000 years ago. Wizard Island, featured in 
the view, is a cinder cone formed by a later 
eruption. The rest of the plan includes hand- 
drawn and colored maps of the important built 
areas of the park. 



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19 42 

Crater [ nL-« Na4 Par^ 37-M 

91. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service, "The Master Plan, Crater Lake 
National Park, Oregon," 1942. Transferred from Loeb Library, Harvard Graduate School of Design. 


92. Olof Wenstrom, "Karta ofver Lillgrufvan," 1886. Transferred from Kummel Library. 

Kummel Library for the Geological Sciences was 
created in 1962, merging several collections from 
across campus, including the Rotch Mining 
Library. When Kummel was closed in 2005, most 
of the collection shifted to Cabot Library, but 
many of the maps came to the Map Collection. 

This beautiful hand drawn profile of Lillgrufvan 
(Little Mine) is part of a series drawn by mining 
engineer Olof Wenstrom in 1886. Born in Sweden, 
he and his American wife and son emigrated to 
the Boston area, where he became a highly 
successful and respected member of the 
American Institute of Mining Engineers. While 
we don't know of a specific connection to 
Harvard, the existence of the Rotch Mining 
Library in the area would make the Harvard 
Library a reasonable donation site. 


Maps of the Map Room 

The Map Collection has lived in five buildings on 
campus. It started in Harvard Hall when it 
arrived in 1818 and then moved to Gore Hall 
with the rest of the library. 

When Widener opened, it received its own 
location in rooms L, M, and N on the third floor. 
But, as it grew, space became too limited there. 

In 1964, the collection moved briefly to Room 101 
in Lamont Library near the West Entrance just 
down the hall from here. 

And, when the Pusey Library opened in 1976, the 
Map Collection moved to its present location. 

In 1956, the library considered new plans for the 
Map Room in Widener to use only rooms L and 
M, freeing up room N for other people. 

The working map of the Map Collection in 2002 


The Harvard Map Collection 

The Map Gai 


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Maps and Wars 

For Georg Brandes and Christoph Ebeling, 
globally free trade seemed to promise a world 
without war. As Thorndike's business illustrates, 
that ideal relied on a kind of capitalism reliant 
on the violence of slavery. Much as the genocidal 
brutality of slavery made possible the eighteenth- 
century foundation of the Map Collection, so too 
in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries have 
the death and destruction of war given 
cartography a powerful, but bloody engine. 

The US Civil War (1861-1865), World War I 
(1914-1918), and World War II (1939-1945) all 
occasioned the incredible proliferation of maps. 
Some, like a naval serviceman's map of 
approaches to Iwo Jima, provided active 
guidance in battle; others, like Robert Howard 
Lord's collection of maps of Europe, sought to 
understand demographics as treaties redrew 
the political borders of Europe in the 1920s. Still 
others, like many of the Civil War in the set given 
by the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the 
United States, look back to retrace and 
understand the past. These maps can remind us 
that even sterile-looking maps can carry with 
them a history of violence that demands a careful 
consideration of what made the Map Collection 

The Massachusetts 34th spent most of 1863-64 in 
the Shenandoah Valley around Martinsburg—a 
city that changed hands 37 times during the 
course of the war. The following map was drawn 
by Capt. C.L. Chandler of Brookline. The clear 
depiction of the military aspects of the city would 
have been of great use to his commanding 
officer, Lt. Col. George D. Wells. Wells was killed 
in October 1864. Many of his papers, including 
this map were given to MOLLUS, and eventually 
made their way to Harvard. 


93. C.L. Chandler, "Plan of the Vicinity of Martinsburg, Virginia/' 1864. Gift of the Military Order of 
the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.), Massachusetts Commandery. 

Verso: "This map was drawn by that noble officer Capt. C.L. Chandler and was much prized by our late Col. 
Geo. D. Wells, Chas. H. Howland, 1st Lt. & B. Gen., 34th Mass. Inf." 


94. United States Army of the Cumberland, "Part of Cobb County, Georgia from the Original Land 
Map," 1864. Gift of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.), 
Massachusetts Commandery. 

MOLLUS was formed after the assassination of 
Abraham Lincoln by three Union officers who 
had served in the honor guard for Lincoln's 
funeral train. In the early twentieth century, a 
fire damaged the archives of the Massachusetts 
Commandery. Items were given to Harvard for 
safekeeping and scattered among many libraries, 
including the Map Collection. 

The loan was formalized as a donation in the 
early 2000s. Included in that donation was this 
map of Cobb County in Georgia, printed in the 
weeks before the fall of Atlanta. Individual 
squares in the blank grid were to be filled in by 
surveyors in the held and the complete map 
would be assembled at headquarters. 


Although many maps in the MOLLUS archive 
were created during the war, most were drawn 
afterwards. With them, MOLLUS members tried 
to document the war, tell the official story of 
battles, and perhaps cement their commanders' 

This map of the battles of Fisher's Hill and 
Cedar Creek is one made after the war. 

Ordered by General Phillip Sheridan, the map 
tells the story of two Union victories in 
Sheridan's Shenandoah Campaign. Six 
Massachusetts regiments participated in these 
two battles, and many of their officers would 
have become members of MOLLUS. It isn't 
surprising that veterans of the battles would 
acquire and retain a copy of a map such as this. 

98. G.L. Gillespie, Bvt. Lt. Col. "Battle Fields of Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, Virginia," 1873. 
Gift of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States (M.O.L.L.U.S.), 
Massachusetts Commandery. 


Harvard history professor Robert Howard Lord 
('06, PhD HO) headed the Poland section of the 
American Inquiry at the Paris Peace Conference. 
As an expert in the history of Slavic Europe, Lord 
argued vociferously, and somewhat successful¬ 
ly, for the enlargement of Poland. His obituary 
in the New York Times stated "The reconstructed 
Poland probably owed more to him than to any 
other American aside from President Wilson." 

For his efforts at the Peace Conference, Lord was 

awarded an honorary doctorate from the 
University of Lemberg (L'viv). 

This map shows the ethnic makeup of Russian 
areas of Poland based on the 1897 Russian 
census. In this part of Poland, the Wilsonian 
philosophy of self-determination was most 
difficult to apply, as Russian, Polish, Ukrainian 
and Lithuanian claims "all came into collision." 

95. "Racial Map of Russian Poland," 1919. From the Robert H. Lord Collection. 


During his time at Harvard, Robert Lord studied 
under Professor Archibald Cary Coolidge, also 
featured in this exhibition as a benefactor of the 
Map Collection. His respect for his professor 
and mentor led him to dedicate the collection of 
essays he co-authored with Charles H. Haskins, 
Some Problems of the Peace Conference, to Coolidge. 
Coolidge's own commitment to Harvard's library 
may have inspired Lord to leave his maps related 
to the Paris Peace Conference here when Lord left 
Harvard to study at St. John's Catholic Seminary 
in nearby Brighton. Lord relied heavily on maps 
like this one to make his argument that the 
restoration of Poland "stood for the triumphant 
righting of the greatest political wrong that 
Europe had ever witnessed." 

97. US Navy Intelligence Section, "Beach Diagram: Southwestern Beaches, Iwo Jima," 1944. 
Gift of Charles Leo Grace, 1946. 

donated only single maps. A Storekeeper Second 
Class, Charles Grace served on the USS LSM 
(Landing Ship Medium) 46 during World War II. 
On this ship, Grace took part in the Battle of Iwo 
Jima, best known as the site of the famous flag 
raising, between 19 February and 8 March 1945 in 
the Pacific Theater. 

Grace and the LSM 46 participated for the 
duration of the battle on the southeastern 
beaches. On these beaches—code-named Green, 
Red, Yellow, and Blue—the US forces pursued 
the major amphibious assault on the island. 




This map was published at the beginning of the 
Blitz, which started September 7,1940. While 
the map shows a concerted bombing campaign 
over Germany, it does not reflect the inaccuracy 
of the British bombers, especially at night. This 
inaccuracy led to civilian deaths and terror in 
small towns and villages. This death and terror 
were echoed and escalated during the months of 
the Blitz in England, when the R.A.F. assumed a 
more defensive posture. 

War generates a plethora of maps for battle, 
planning, and propaganda. We don't know 
which curator acquired or which alumnus 
donated this particular item, but it is 
representative of the thousands of maps and 
cultural artifacts that have come to the Map 
Collection during wars. 

99. H.M. Stationary Office, "Britain's Air Offensive: R.A.F. Attacks on Germany," September 27,1940. 


Data and GIS 

With the emergence of geographic information 
systems (GIS) and computer cartography in the 
early 1990s, students and faculty could customize 
maps to their individual teaching and research 
interests. To support the rapidly growing 
interest digital mapping, the Harvard Map 
Collection began actively collecting digital 
datasets that describe the physical and cultural 
world. The collection focused initially on local 
(Cambridge, Boston and other municipalities), 
state, and national data before expanding to 
international data. Because most datasets were 
too large to distribute over the early Internet, the 
Map Collection acquired hundreds of CDs and 
DVDs to be used in the Map Collection's reading 

Since the mid-2000s, the Map Collection has 
focused on two ways of supporting of digital 
cartography: 1) the creation of the Harvard 
Geospatial Library, a portal designed to help 
people search, discover, and access the Map 
Collection's spatial datasets and 2) the purchase 
of data based on the needs of the Harvard 
research community. This geographically 
targeted collecting expanded our data holdings 
for India and China, in particular, as well as parts 
of Africa and South America. 


30. Henry Haestens, "Hierosolima sancta Dei-Civitas," 1598. Ebeling Map Collection. 
Gift of Israel Thorndike, 1818. 




£ £ £ 

Index of Images 

Exhibition — Page 

1 - 33 


35 - 11 

36 - 46 

3 - 35 

4- 35 

5- 36 

6- 36 

7- 37 

8- 38 

9- 38 

10 - 39 

11 - 40 

12 - 40 

13 - 62 

14 - 62 

15 - 63 

19 - 83 

20 - 83 

21 - 83 

22 - 101 

23 - 41 

24 - 43 

25 - 43 

26 - 44 

27 - 45 

28 - 45 

29 - 72 

30 - 121 

31 - 34 

32 - 15 

33 - 88 

37 - 47 

38 - 47 

39 - 48 

40 - 49 

41 - 49 

42 - 50 

43 - 51 

45 - 52 

46 - 53 

47 - 53 

48 - 77 

49 - 74 

50 - 54 

51 - 55 

52 - 98 

53 - 82 

54 - 71 

55 - 73 

56 - 73 

57 - 90 

58 - 56 

59 - 57 

60 - 58 

61 - 59 

62 - 59 

63 - 60 

64 - 61 

65 - 65 

66 - 66 
67 - 67 

68 - 68 

69 - 69 

70 - 70 

71 - 78 

72 - 7f 

73 - 80 

74 - 81 
71— 81 

76 - 84 

77 - 85 

78 - 86 

79 - 89 

81 - 92 

82 - 93 

83 - 94 

84 - 95 

85 - 100 

86 - 103 

87 - 104 

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91 - 108 

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96 - 116 

97 - 117 

98 - 114 

99 - 119 

100 - 99 

101 - 5